Research essay on Pollution and Degradation
Grade 10 Environmental Science and Technology
Guidelines :
Step one:
Choose a question that you want to address in your research essay and
identify at least five relevant sources that inform you about the topic.
Step two:
Summarize the key points of each source in a few sentences. Compare
the points from the different sources and sort them by topic.
Step three: Make an outline of the paper by sorting the different topics in a logical
flow.
Step four: Write the introduction of your essay, which introduces the question
that your essay is addressing and explains all the terms that the reader
needs to know in order to be able to understand what your essay is
investigating.
Example:
If your essay addresses the question: "what are the effects of acid rain
on the lithosphere?" the introduction needs to explain what acid rain is,
how it forms and what the lithosphere is.
Step five:
Write the main body of your essay. Use the summarized key points of
each topic to write one paragraph. Cite the sources you are using.
Step six:
Sum up your essay in a conclusion paragraph. The conclusion
paragraph answers the question that the research essay is addressing
in a clear and concise manner.
Step seven: Make a list of references in APA format. Information on APA format can
be found on this website:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Example questions:
1.
What is the effect of acid rain on the lithosphere?
2.
What is the effect of acid rain on living organisms?
3.
What are the main mechanisms contributing to soil depletion (in Canada)?
4.
What are the consequences of soil contamination?
5.
What are the main mechanisms contributing to the pollution of the
hydrosphere?
6.
What are the consequences of over-fertilization?
Rubric:
Category
Introduction
exceeds
expectations
4 points
The introduction
clearly states the
question that the
paper is
intended to
answer and
effectively
introduces /
explains all
relevant terms.
Body
6 points
Paragraph
Each paragraph
Organization starts with a
well-written
topic sentence.
The information
presented within
each paragraph
is integrated and
synthesized
from cited
sources and
relates to the
topic of the
paragraph
(stated in the
topic sentence).
Research
7-8 points
The paragraphs
include all of the
relevant points
that support the
paragraph's
topic sentence.
meets expectations
3 points
The introduction is
mostly effective.
The topic of the
paper is named and
most relevant
terms are
introduced.
some
shortcomings
2 points
The essay
includes an
introduction, but
may not include a
well-defined
question that the
paper is intended
to answer, or fail
to introduce all
relevant terms.
4-5 points
Each of the
paragraphs
includes an
introductory
sentence.
Information of
cited sources is
summarized in a
fairly integrated
and coherent
fashion.
3 points
Most paragraphs
include an
introductory
sentence and
supporting
sentences, but a
lack of logical
organization
within the
paragraph is
evident.
Information is
not summarized
but only restated
from the source.
5-6 points
The paragraphs
include most of the
relevant points that
support the
paragraph's topic.
3-4 points
The paragraphs
include few
relevant points
that support the
paragraph's
topic.
major
shortcomings
1 point
There is an
attempt at an
introduction, but
a purpose
statement or
question is
absent. Relevant
terms are
explained
insufficiently or
not at all.
1-2 points
Most paragraphs
do not include a
topic sentence.
Poor organization
of some or all
paragraphs make
for a difficult
read. Information
presented is
either not
relevant to the
topic or
represents a
personal opinion.
1-2 points
The paragraphs
include few to
none of the
relevant points
that support the
paragraph's
topic.
Conclusion
4 points
The conclusion
clearly and
concisely
answers the
question the
paper is
investigating.
Conventions
4 points
Author makes
virtually no
errors in
grammar,
spelling or
punctuation.
Sources and
citation
4 points
The paper is
based on at least
five sources,
which are
consistently
cited within the
body of the
paper and listed
in APA format at
the end.
3 points
The conclusion is
stated. It is
addressing the
question the paper
is intending to
answer. The essay
is adequately
summarized.
3 points
Author makes few
errors in grammar,
spelling or
punctuation.
2 points
There is an
attempt at a
conclusion. The
essay is
somewhat
summarized up.
3 points
The paper is based
on at least five
sources, which are
not consistently
cited within the
body of the paper
or not listed in APA
format at the end.
2 points
The paper is
based on fewer
than five sources,
which may or
may not be
consistently cited
within the body
of the paper and
listed in APA
format at the end
2 points
Author makes
some errors in
grammar,
spelling or
punctuation.
1 point
There is no
reference to the
initial question of
the paper in the
closing
paragraph. The
essay is not
summarized.
1 point
Author makes
excessive errors
in grammar,
spelling or
punctuation that
distract the
reader from the
content.
1 point
Sources are not
accurately
documented. Intext citations are
missing, not
relevant or
incorrectly cited.
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Research Essay guidelines