Chapter 14- Circulation and Respiration
CUE WORDS or QUESTIONS
What does the cardiovascular
system do?
What organs are involved?
Which heart chamber carries
blood into the heart? What
moves it away?
What is the function of valves?
What is the pathway of blood
to and from your heart?
What are the three types of
blood vessels?
NOTES WRITTEN
The cardiovascular system carries substances, like oxygen and food to
your cells, removes substances like carbon dioxide and other wastes,
and fights diseases
The cardiovascular system includes: heart, blood vessels, lymphatic
vessels, and blood
The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pushes blood through the
blood vessels
The heart has a right side and a left side (separated by a septum) and has
two chambers (an upper and a lower)
1) Atrium- upper heart chambers, blood goes into the heart
– Right comes from body (O2 poor)
–
– Left comes from lungs (O2 rich)
–
2) Ventriclelower heart chambers, blood goes away from the heart
– Right goes to lungs (O2 poor)
–
– Left goes to body (O2 rich)
Valve- flap– of tissue that prevents the blood from flowing backward
You can keep your heart healthy by being healthy
Two loop system:
1) Loop 1- heart
lungs
heart
2) Loop 2- heart
body
heart
Aorta (in loop 2)- largest artery in your body
The types of blood vessels:
1) Arteries- carry blood away from the heart
Thick, strong and flexible (can withstand high blood pressure)
2) Capillaries- tiny vessels that exchange substances between blood
and cells
 O2, CO2, and glucose move via diffusion (H
3) Veins- carry blood to the heart
L)
 Thinner than arteries because blood pressure is not as strong
An average adult has about 60,000 miles of veins and arteries to carry blood
SUMMARY
CUE WORDS or QUESTIONS
What makes a pulse?
What is your blood
pressure?
What does blood consist of?
NOTES WRITTEN
Pulse- expansion and relaxation of artery walls as the ventricle contracts,
and blood is sent to the body
Blood pressure- force against the walls of the blood vessels when heart beats
Blood is made of plasma (water, nutrients, and hormones), red blood cells
(which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide), white blood cells (which
fight diseases), and platelets (which clot blood when you get a cut)
What does the respiratory
system do?
Respiratory system- moves O2 into the body and CO2 out of the body
(Cellular respiration- chemical reaction that changes O2 and glucose into
energy
cellular energy)
What is the pathway for air?
Pathway for airNose
Pharynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs
Alveoli
Nose – air enters through the nostrils
 Mucus- sticky liquid that traps dust and bacteria (prevents lining
from drying out)
 Cilia- hair-like cells that move mucus into the throat
Pharynx - (throat) connects nose & mouth to trachea
Trachea - (wind pipe) lined w/ cilia & moves mucus to pharynx
to be swallowed (coughing and sneezing clears the trachea)
Bronchi - passage between the trachea & lungs
Lung- main organ of the respiratory system
Alveoli – tiny sacs of lung tissue that move O2 into blood and CO2 out of
blood


Capillaries surround alveoli & exchange the gases
300 million alveoli create a surface area of 70 m²
What diseases are associated
Respiratory disease and illnesses- cold, pneumonia, flu, asthma
with your respiratory system? Smoking is one of the worst (and avoidable) things you can do to your health
SUMMARY
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Chapter 14- Circulation and Respiration CUE WORDS or