METHODOLOGY DATA SOURCE We used English language arts/literacy (English) and mathematics results from the 2014-15 California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) research files for our analysis and CDE’s Public School Directory database for general information about schools. SCHOOL SAMPLE The school sample is limited to traditional charter and public schools serving students between grades K-12, as defined by CDE. For example, our sample does not include juvenile court schools, schools with selective admissions, or alternative “independent study” schools. Two schools were categorized by CDE as traditional elementary schools, but we excluded them from the sample because their school names suggest that they are non-traditional (e.g., the school name was “Independent Study Elementary”) and, therefore, not comparable to other schools in our sample. CALCULATIONS OF PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS MEETING OR EXCEEDING STANDARD To allow for fair student achievement comparisons across all schools, particularly schools with irregular grades served, we used schools’ grade-span served to break out their rates of meeting or exceeding the state standard into elementary, middle and/or high school grade levels. Elementary was defined as grades K-5 or schools that served grades K-6 and no higher grade. Middle was defined as grades 6-8, or schools that served grades 5-8, 5-9, or 6-9 and no lower or higher grades. High was defined as grades 9-12, or schools that served grades 8-12 and no lower grades. Schools that served grades in more than one school level category were included in comparisons for those school types. Note that only grades 3-8 and 11 are tested in English and math so only these grades are represented in schools’ achievement results. Table 1 shows the distribution of school levels in the Bay Area and the rest of the state. The majority of schools were categorized into one school level. Table 1. Distribution of school levels, by region. School Level Categories Elementary Middle High Elementary & Middle Middle & High Elementary, Middle & High TOTAL # of Bay Area Schools 717 209 157 86 19 8 1,196 # of non-Bay Area Schools 4,066 1,170 1,616 953 359 296 8,460 STATE AVERAGE CUTOFFS Schools were included in our top performing lists if the proficiency rate for low-income African American or low-income Latino students in English or math on the 2014-15 CAASPP was equal to or higher than the state average in a given school level (elementary, middle or high) and subject (English or mathematics) for all students, and if the percentage of students tested in a given subgroup (low-income and African American or low-income Latino) of all students tested in the school was equal to or higher than the state average percentage of that student group. The percentage of low-income African American and low-income Latino students served in schools was not always available, so the percentage of these student groups tested was used as an estimate of students served. Tables 2 and 3 show the state averages for these rates. The percent meeting or exceeding standards was calculated as a sum of the percent meeting and the percent exceeding, so as to be easily replicable with the CAASPP test results website (http://caaspp.cde.ca.gov/sb2015/Search). Table 2. State average % of student groups tested (all schools in state, including nontraditional schools) Student Group Number Mean Std. Dev. Min Max Low-income & African American 9,724 5% 9% 0% 100% Low-income & Latino 9,765 41% 30% 0% 100% Table 3. State average % of student groups meeting or exceeding the state standard in traditional schools, by subject and school level Student Group School Level English Math English Middle Math English High Math English Elementary Math English Middle Math English High Math Elementary Low-income & African American Low-income & Latino Subject Number 1,491 1,491 795 798 347 348 4,715 4,718 1,980 1,981 1,154 1,145 Mean 20% 14% 24% 13% 35% 10% 26% 21% 29% 18% 46% 17% Std. Dev. 13% 11% 14% 10% 16% 9% 11% 11% 12% 10% 16% 11% Min 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Max 85% 73% 88% 64% 83% 50% 94% 88% 92% 88% 98% 91% ADDITIONAL EXCLUSIONS After applying our criteria, remaining schools were examined to ensure consistent performance across all grade levels served. Two schools at which low-income African American or lowincome Latino students met our criteria in one grade level but did not in others were excluded. Also, an additional school was excluded because it used selective admissions during the 201314 school year (the year in which CAASPP was administered).