Biology Life on Earth with Physiology
Chapter Vocabulary
Unit 1: ORIGIN OF LIFE AND BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
Ch-1.1 what is life?
1. Organisms
2. Cell
3. Photosynthesis
Ch1.2 Evolution
1. Natural selection
Ch1.3: How do scientist study life
1. heterotrophic
2. Autotrophic
Ch. 17-1: How Did Life Begin?
1. Spontaneous generation
2. Ribozyme
3. Protocell
Ch. 17-2: What Were The Earliest Organisms Like?
1. Prokaryotes
2. Eukaryotes
3. aerobic prokaryotes
4. anaerobic prokaryotes
5. Anaerobic6. Proto cells
7. Endosymbiosis
Ch. 3.1: Why is Carbon So Important in Biological Molecules?
1. Organic
2. Inorganic
3. Functional groups
Ch. 3.2: How Are Organic Molecules Synthesized?
1. Monomers
2. Polymers
3. Dehydration synthesis
Ch. 3.3: What Are Carbohydrates?
1. Carbohydrate
2. Sugars
3. Monosaccharide
4. Disaccharide
5. Polysaccharide
6. Glucose
7. Starch
8. Glycogen
9. Cellulose
10. Chitin
Ch. 3.4: What Are Lipids?
1. Lipids
2. Fatty acid
3. Triglycerides
4. Fats/oils
5. Saturated
6. Unsaturated
7. Waxes
8. Phospholipids
9. Steroids
Ch. 3.5: What Are Proteins?
1. Proteins
2. Enzymes
3. Amino acids
4. Disulfide bonds
5. Peptide bond
6. Peptide
7. Primary structure
8. Secondary structure
9. Helix
10. Pleated sheet
11. Tertiary structure
12. Quaternary structure
13. Denatured
(cont)
Ch. 3.6: What Are Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids?
1. Nucleotide
2. Base
3. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
4. Nucleic acids
5. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
6. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
UNIT 2: TRANSPORT
Ch. 5.1: How is the Structure of the Cell Membrane Related to its Function?
1. Fluid mosaic model
2. Phospholipid bilayer
3. glycoproteins
4. receptor proteins
5. recognition proteins
6. connection proteins
7. transport proteins
Ch. 5.2: How Do Substances Move Across Membranes?
1. solute
2. solvent
3. concentration
4. gradient
5. concentration gradient
6. diffusion
7. selectively permeable
8. passive transport
9. energy-requiring transport (active)
10. simple diffusion
11. facilitated diffusion
12. carrier proteins
13. channel proteins
14. aquaporins
15. osmosis
16. Isotonic
17. Hypertonic
18. Hypotonic
19. Turgor pressure
20. Plasmolysis (look-up)
21. Active transport
22. Endocytosis
23. Pinocytosis
24. Phagocytosis
25. Food vacuole
26. Exocytosis
(cont)
UNIT 3: ENERGY PROCESSING
Ch. 6.1 and 6.2: What Is Energy? How Is Energy Transformed During Chemical Reactions?
1. Energy
2. Chemical energy
3. First Law of Thermodynamics
4. Law of Conservation of Energy
5. Second Law of Thermodynamics
6. Entrophy
7. Chemical reaction
8. Reactants
9. Products
10. Exergonic
11. Endergonic
12. Activation energy
Ch. 7.1: What is Photosynthesis?
1. Photosynthesis
2. Epidermis
3. Cuticle
4. Stoma
5. Mesophyll
6. Bundle sheath cells
7. Stroma
8. Thylakoids
9. Light reaction
10. Calvin cycle
Ch. 7.2: Light Reactions –How Is Light Energy Converted to Chemical Energy?
1. Electromagnetic spectrum
2. Photons
3. Chlorophyll a
4. Accessory pigments
5. carotenoids
6. photosystems
7. electron transport chain
8. chemiosmosis
9. ATP synthase
Ch. 7.3: Calvin Cycle –How is Chemical Energy Stored in Sugar Molecules?
1. Photorespiration
2. Carbon fixation
3. G3P synthesis
4. RuBP regeneration
Ch. 8.1: How Do Cells Obtain Energy?
1. Photosynthesis equation:
2. Complete glucose breakdown equation:
Ch. 8.2: What Happens During Glycolysis?
1. Glycolysis
2. NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
Ch. 8.3: What Happens during Cellular Respiration?
1. Cellular respiration
2. Mitochondria
3. Krebs cycle
4. FADH2 (Flavin adenine dinucleotide)
5. ETC (electron transport chain)
6. Chemiosmosis
Ch. 8.4: What Happens During Fermentation?
1. anaerobic
2. fermentation
3. aerobic
4. lactic acid fermentation
5. alcoholic fermentation
UNIT 4: CELL CYCLE, DNA & MITOSIS
Ch. 9.1: Why Do Cells Divide?
1. cell division
2. daughter cells
3. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
4. nucleotides
5. chromosome
6. genes
7. differentiate
8. cell cycle
9. stem cells (w/ examples)
10. permanently differentiated cells (w/ examples)
11. sexual reproduction
12. gametes
13. asexual reproduction
14. clones
Ch. 9.2: What Occurs during the Prokaryotic Cell Cycle
1. prokaryotic fission
Ch. 9.3: How is the DNA in Eukaryotic Chromosomes Organized?
1. locus (loci)
2. telomeres
3. centromere
4. duplicated chromosomes (sister chromatids)
5. karyotype
6. homologous chromosomes (homologues)
7. diploid
8. autosomes
9. sex chromosomes
10. mutations
11. alleles
12. haploid
Ch. 9.4: What Occurs During the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle?
1. interphase
2. mitotic cell division
3. mitosis
4. cytokinesis
Ch. 9.5: How Does Mitotic Cell Division Produce Genetically Identical Daughter Cells?
1. prophase
2. spindle microtubules
3. centrioles
4. kinetochore
5. metaphase
6. anaphase
7. telophase
8. cell plate
Ch. 9.6: How is the Cell Cycle Controlled?
1. growth factors
2. checkpoints (list 3)
UNIT 5: RNA and PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Ch. 11.1: How Did Scientists Discover That Genes Are Made of DNA?
Ch. 11.2: What Is the Structure of DNA?
1. nucleotides
2. nitrogenous bases (list 4)
3. sugar-phopshate backbone
(cont)
4. double helix
5. complementary base pairs
Ch. 11.3: How Does DNA Encode Genetic Information?
Ch. 11.4: How Does DNA Replication Ensure Genetic Constancy During Cell Division?
1. DNA replication
2. free nucleotides
3. DNA helicases
4. DNA polymerases
5. semi-conservative replication
Ch. 11.5: What Are Mutations, and How Do They Occur?
1. mutations
2. nucleotide substitutions (point mutations)
3. insertion mutation
4. deletion mutation
5. inversion
6. translocation
Ch. 12.1: How Is The Information In DNA Used in a Cell?
1. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
2. mRNA (messenger RNA)
3. codons
4. rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
5. tRAN (transfer RNA)
6. transcription
7. translation
8. genetic code
9. start codon (w/ example)
10. stop codon (w/ examples)
Ch. 12.2: How is the Information in a Gene Transcribed Into RNA?
1. RNA polymerase
2. promoter
3. template strand
Ch. 12.3: How is the Base Sequence of mRNA Translated Into Protein?
1. exons
2. introns
Ch. 12.4: How Do Mutations Affect Protein Structure and Function?
1. mutations
2. inversions
3. translocations
4. deletion mutation
5. insertion mutation
6. nucleotide substitution (point mutation)
Ch. 12.5: How is Gene Expression Regulated?
1. operons
2. regulatory gene
(cont)
3. operator
4 structural gene
5. lactose operon
6. repressor protein
7. epigenetics
UNIT 6: MEIOSIS, MENDELIAN GENETICS and INHERITANCE PATTERNS
Ch. 9.7: Why Do So Many Organisms Reproduce Sexually?
Ch. 9.8: How Does Meiotic Cell Division Produce Haploid Cells?
1. meitotic cell division
2. meiosis
3. chiasmata
4. crossing over
5. recombination
Ch. 9.9: When Do Mitotic and Meiotic Cell Division Occur in the Life Cycles of Eukaryotes?
Ch. 9.10: How Do Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Produce Genetic Variability?
Ch. 10.1: What Is the Physical Basis of Inheritance?
1. Inheritance
2. genes
3. locus (loci)
4. alleles
5. mutations
6. homozygous
7. heterozygous
Ch. 10.2: How Were the Principles of Inheritance Discovered?
1. self-fertilization
2. cross-fertilization
Ch. 10.3: How Are Single Traits Inherited?
1. true-breeding
2. dominant allele
3. recessive allele
4. Law of Segregation
5. Genotype
6. phenotype
7. Punnett Square method
8. test cross
Ch. 10.4: How Are Multiple Traits Inherited?
1. Law of Independent Assortment
Ch. 10.5: Do The Mendelian Rules of Inheritance Apply to All Traits?
1. Law of Incomplete Dominance
2. Codominance
3. Polygenic inheritance
4. Pleiotropy
Ch. 10.6: How Are Genes Located on the Same Chromosome Inherited?
1. gene linkage
2. genetic recombination
Ch. 10.7: How Are Sex and Sex-Linked Traits Inherited?
1. sex chromosomes
2. X chromosome
3. Y chromosome
4. autosomes
5. sex-linked
Ch. 10.8: How Are Human Genetic Disorders Inerited?
1. pedigree
2. carrier
3. albinism
4. single-cell anemia
5. hemophihlia
6. nondisjunction
7. Turner’s syndrome
8. Trisomy
9. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)
10. Jacob syndrome (XYY)
11. Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)
(cont)
UNIT 7: EVOLUTION and POPULATION GENETICS
Ch. 14.1: How Did Evolutionary Thought Develop?
1. evolution
2. population
3. fossils
Ch. 14.2: How does Natural Selection Work?
1. natural selection
Ch. 14.3: How Do We Know That Evolution Has Occurred?
1. homologous structures
2. vestigial structures
3. convergent evolution
4. analogous structures
Ch. 14.4: What is the Evidence That Populations Evolve By Natural Selection?
1. artificial selection
Ch. 15.1: How Are Populations, Genes, and Evolution Related?
1. population
2. gene pool
3. allele frequency
4. Hardy-Weinberg principle
5. Equilibrium population
6. gene flow
Ch. 15.2: What Causes Evolution?
1. mutations
2. genetic drift
3. population bottleneck
4. founder effect
5. natural selection
Ch. 15.3: How Does Natural Selection Work?
1. fitness
2. adaptations
3. competition
4. coevolution
5. predation
6. sexual selection
7. directional selection (draw a picture as well)
8. stabilizing selection (draw a picture)
9. disruptive selection (draw a picture)
UNIT 8: ECOLOGY
Ch. 28.1: How Do Nutrients and Energy Move Through Ecosystems?
1. ecosystems
2. abiotic
3. nutrients
Ch. 28.2: How Does Energy Flow Through Ecosystems?
1. trophic level
2. producers (autotrophs)
3. consumers (heterotrophs)
4. Primary consumers
5. herbivores (give examples)
6. Secondary consumers
7. carnivores (give examples)
8. tertiary consumers
9. net primary production
10. biomass
11. food chain
12. phytoplankton
13. zooplankton
14. food web
15. omnivores
16. detritovores
17. decomposers
18. energy pyramid
19. biological magnification
Ch. 28.3: How Do Nutrients Cycle Within and Among Ecosystems?
1. macronutrients
2. micronutrients
3. nutrient cycles
4. reservoirs
5. hydrologic cycle
6. aquifers
7. carbon cycle
8. fossil fuels
9. nitrogen cycle
10. nitrogen fixation
11. denitrifying bacteria
12. phosphorous cycle
Ch. 28.4: What Happens When Humans Disrupt Nutrient Cycles?
1. acid deposition
2. greenhouse gases
3. greenhouse effect
4. deforestation
5. climate change
Ch. 27.1: Why Are Community Interactions Important?
1. Community
2. coevolution
(cont)
Ch. 27.2: How Does the Ecological Niche Influence Competition?
1. ecological niche
2. competition
3. interspecific competition
4. competitive exclusion principle
5. resource partitioning
6. intraspecific competition
Ch. 27.3: How Do Predator-Prey Interactions Shape Evolutionary Adaptations?
1. predators
2. camouflage
3. warning coloration
4. mimicry
5. startle coloration
6. aggressive mimicry
Ch. 27.4: What Are Parasitism and Mutualism
1. parasites
2. hosts
3. mutualism
Ch. 27.5: How Do Keystone Species Influence Community Structure?
1. keystone species
Ch. 27.6: How Do Community Interactions Cause Change Over Time?
1. succession
2. pioneers
3. climax community
4. subclimax
5. primary succession
6. secondary succession
7. biomes
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