Huntsville City Schools
2015 - 2016
Instructional Guide
Eighth Grade Physical Science
General resources:
Pearson Success Net
ALEX - Alabama Learning Exchange http://alex.state.al.us/index.php
Phet Simulations: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulations/category/new
AMSTI (for AMSTI-trained teachers)
LTF all lessons (for LTF trained teachers)
Others: The Physics Classroom,
1st Nine Weeks
Standard
“I Can”
Statements
8.1 Identify steps within
the scientific
process.
Identify control, variables,
scientific method,
hypothesis, investigation,
independent and
dependent variables.
8.1.1 Applying process
skills to interpret
data from graphs,
tables, and charts
8.1.2 Identifying
controls and
variables in a
scientific
investigation
Suggested
Resources
Pearson:
Scientific
Method/Graphing/ Lab
Equipment
ALEX:
Identify SI Unit and apply
conversions of the metric
system when conducting
an investigation.
Conduct a scientific
investigation.
PhET Simulation:
Graphing Lines
Laying the Foundation:
● Graphing Skills
Pacing
Recommendation
3 weeks
Vocabulary
Data table
Graph
Chart
Control
Controlled Experiment
Variable
Independent
(manipulated) variable
Dependent (responding)
variable
Scientific Investigation
International System of
Units
Hypothesis
1
8.1.4 Identifying
examples of
hypotheses
8.1.5 Identifying
appropriate
laboratory
glassware,
balances, time
measuring
equipment, and
optical
instruments used
to conduct an
investigation
8.8 Identify Newton's
three laws of
motion.
8.8.1 Defining
terminology such
as action and
reaction forces,
inertia,
acceleration,
momentum, and
friction
8.8.2 Interpreting
distance-time
graphs
Apply process skills to
interpret data from graphs,
tables, and charts
●
●
Generate tables and
graphs based on
information gathered
during an investigation.
Identify appropriate lab
equipment including
glassware, balances, and
time measuring equipment
use and conducting an
investigation.
Determine when an
object is in motion
relative to a reference
point.
Measure distance using
appropriate SI units.
Describe and compare
speed, velocity, and
acceleration.
Graph and interpret
distance-time graphs and
calculate slope.
Identify action, reaction
forces, inertia,
acceleration, momentum,
friction.
List the three Laws of
Motion.
Scientific Method
(Come Fly with
Me/Penny Lab)
Whirligig Lollapalooza
AMSTI:
Experimenting with Forces
and Motion
Other:
The Gummy Bear Lab
http://sciecnespot.net/Med
ia/mmaniabearlab.pdf
Pearson:
Chapter 7: Motion,
Lessons 1-3
Chapter 8 Forces,
Lessons1-4
ALEX:
 The Need for Speed
PhET Simulation(s):
 Forces and Motion
(Basics)
 The Moving Man
 Position vs Time
Graphs
 Velocity vs Time
Graphs
Laying the Foundation:
 The Force to be
Reckoned With
 Gravity Force Lab
4 weeks
Newton’s Three Laws of
Motion
Action
Reaction
Inertia
Acceleration
Momentum
Friction
Motion
Reference Point
Distance
Speed
Average Speed
Instantaneous Speed
Velocity
Slope
Acceleration
Gravity
Weight
Mass
Law of Conservation of
Momentum
Net Force
2
Apply measurement skills
to determine the motion
of an object as it
accelerates.
Calculate momentum.
Describe how forces
affect motion.
 Velocity vs. Time
Graphs -Describing
Motion
 Speed - Measuring
Constant Speed
 Ramped Up - Setting
the Wheels in Motion
AMSTI:
Experimenting with Forces
and Motion
Identify the forces acting
upon an object.
Define gravity, weight,
and mass.
Benchmark Review and
Assessment
1 week
3
2nd Nine Weeks
Standard
8.9. Describe how
mechanical
advantage of
simple machines
reduce the amount
of force needed for
work.
“I Can”
Statements
Resources
Identify and calculate
work and power.
Pearson:
Ch 9 Work and Machines
Identify simple and
compound machines.
ALEX:
 Inventions using
Simple Machines
Projects
 How to make
something … simple
 Incline plane and the
crashing marble
Identify the input and
output force of a simple
machine.
Laying the Foundation:
 Levers are Us
AMSTI:
Working with motors and
simple machines
Pacing
Recommendation
3 Weeks
Vocabulary
Energy
Work
Joule
Power
Watt
Force
Mechanical Advantage
Simple Machines
Incline Planes
Wedge
Screw Lever
Fulcrum
Pulley
Wheel and axle
Input force
Output force
Compound machines
Efficiency
PhET Simulations:
 The Ramp
Others:
Ed Heads Simple
Machines and Compound
Machines
http://www.edheads.org/a
ctivities/simple-machines/
Rube-Goldberg Machines
Project
4
8.10 Differentiate
between potential
and kinetic energy.
Compare potential and
kinetic energy.
Describe how energy and
work are related.
Pearson:
Chapter 10 Energy
Lesson 1
1 weeks
Energy
Kinetic Energy
Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential
Energy
Elastic Potential Energy
Mechanical Energy
1 week
Energy transformation
Law of Conservation of
Energy
Mechanical Energy
Nuclear Energy
Thermal Energy
Electrical Energy
Radiant Energy
Chemical Energy
3 weeks
Mechanical Waves
Electromagnetic Waves
Longitudinal Waves
ALEX
PhET Simulations:
 Energy Skate Park
 Energy Forms and
Changes
Laying the Foundation:
 Roller Coaster Fun
AMSTI:
Working With Motors and
Simple Machines
8.11 Explain the law of
conservation of
energy and its
relationship to
energy
transformation,
including chemical
to electrical,
chemical to heat,
electrical to light,
electrical to
mechanical, and
electrical to sound
Describe how energy is
conserved in a
transformation.
Pearson:
Chapter 10 Energy
Lesson 2-3
Give examples of energy
transformations for the
different forms of energy.
ALEX:
8.12 Classify waves as
mechanical or
electromagnetic.
Identify waves as
electromagnetic or
mechanical.
Laying the Foundation:
 Cool Chemical
Reactions
Others:
http://www.science4us.co
m/elementary-physicalscience/energy/energytransformations/
Pearson:
Chapters 12
Characteristics of Waves
5
Examples:
- mechanicalearthquake waves;
- electromagneticultraviolet light
waves, visible light
waves
8.12.1 Describing how
earthquake
waves, sound
waves, water
waves, and
electromagnetic
waves can be
destructive or
beneficial due to
the transfer of
energy
8.12.2 Describing
longitudinal and
transverse
waves
8.12.3 Describing how
waves travel
through different
media
8.12.4 Relating
wavelength,
frequency, and
amplitude to
energy
8.12.5 Describing the
electromagnetic
Identify wavelength,
frequency, and amplitude
of a wave.
Describe the effect of
different types of waves
(electromagnetic,
longitudinal, transverse,
sound, earthquake
waves) in the way they
transfer energy.
Ch 13 Sound
Ch 14 Electromagnetic
Waves
ALEX
Transverse Waves
http://alex.state.al.us/lesso
n_view.php?id=24112
Transverse waves
Standing Waves
Wavelength
Frequency
Amplitude
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Sound Waves
Seismic Waves
Phet
Wave on a string
Describe how waves
travel through different
media.
Laying the Foundation:
 Catch the Wave:
Standing Wave
Patterns
Describe the
electromagnetic spectrum
in terms of frequencies.
AMSTI:
Working with Motors and
Simple Machines
6
spectrum in
terms of
frequencies
Example:
electromagnetic
spectrum in
increasing
frequenciesmicrowaves,
infrared light,
visible light,
ultraviolet light, X
rays
Benchmark Review and
Assessment
1 week
7
3rd Nine Weeks
Standard
8.7 Describe states of
matter based on
kinetic energy of
particles in matter.
“I Can” Statements
Compare and contrast the
states of matter based on
the levels of kinetic energy.
Interpret an illustration of
states of matter.
Resources
Pearson:
Ch. 1 Intro. To Matter
Chapter 2 Solids, Liquids
and Gases Lesson 1-3
ALEX
PhET Simulations:
 States of Matter
 Collisions
Laying the Foundation
 States of Matter
 Evaporation and
Condensation
AMSTI:
Exploring the Properties of
Matter
Pacing
Recommendation
2 weeks
Vocabulary
Matter
Physical Property
Chemical Property
Physical Change
Chemical Change
Solid
Liquid
Gas
Surface Tension
Viscosity
Pressure
Melting/Freezing Point
Vaporization
Condensation
Vaporization
Sublimation
Boiling Point
Other:
Volume and Measurement
Review
http://www.commoncoresh
eets.com
8
8.1.2 Measuring
dimension,
volume, and mass
using Système
International
d'Unités (SI units)
Describe and measure SI
units used to measure
mass, volume and density.
Pearson:
Calculate Density
Laying the Foundation:
 Chromatography of Drink
Mixes
(Separating Dyes)
1 week
Volume
Mass
Density
1 week
Buoyant force
Fluid
Pressure
2 weeks
Democritus
Dalton
Ch 1 Introduction to Matter
Lesson 3
AMSTI:
Exploring the Properties of
Matter
PhEt:
Density
8.9.1
Describing the
effect of force on
pressure in fluids
Explain the relationship
between fluid and
pressure.
Explain the relationship
between fluid pressure and
buoyant force.
Other:
Volume and Measurement
Review
www.commoncoresheets.c
om
Pearson:
Ch 8 Sinking and Floating
Lesson 3
Laying the Foundation:

Building a paper
Airplane using
Bernoulli’s Principle
AMSTI:
Exploring the Properties of
Matter
PhEt:
Density
8.2. Describe the
structure of atoms,
Draw and label the parts of
the atom.
Other:
Float or Sink from Planet
diary 1.3
Pearson:
9
including the
location of protons,
neutrons, and
electrons.
8.2.1 Identifying the
charge of each
subatomic particle
8.2.2 Identifying
Democritus and
Dalton as
contributors to the
atomic theory
Identify all the subatomic
particles of the atom.
Compare and contrast
Democritus and Dalton’s
contributions to the atomic
theory.
Understand the information
provided on the periodic
table.
Ch 3 Elements and the
Periodic Table
Atoms
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Electron Cloud
Subatomic Particles
Atomic Theory
Mass Number
Atomic Number/Weight
Periodic Table
ALEX
Get in the Mix
Laying the Foundation:
 Making Sense of that
Chart on the Wall
AMSTI:
Exploring the Properties of
Matter
Others:
http://www.iknowthat.com/
mhscience/Atoms/Fixed.ht
m
8.3 Determine the
number of protons,
neutrons, and
electrons, and the
mass of an element
using the periodic
table.
Determine the number of
protons, neutrons, and
electrons in a given atom.
Pearson:
Ch. 3 Elements and
Periodic Table
Locate and identify metals,
nonmetals, metalloids and
noble gases on the
periodic table.
ALEX
8.3.1 Locating metals,
nonmetals,
metalloids, and
noble gases on the
periodic table
8.3.2 Using data about
the number of
electrons in the
outer shell of an
Define valence electrons
and identify the valence
electrons for each group
on the periodic table.
Determine the reactivity of
an atom using the periodic
table.
Laying the Foundation:
 * Why do They Call It A
Periodic Table?
AMSTI:
Exploring the Properties of
Matter
PhET Simulation:
Build an Atom
http://phet.colorado.edu/
2 weeks
Dimitri Mendeleev
Atomic Mass
Chemical Symbol
Group
Period
Periodic Table
Valence Electrons
Alkali Earth Metals
Alkali Metals
Metals
Nonmetals
Metalloids
Noble Gases
Outer Shells
Reactivity
Malleable
Ductile
Corrosion
Other:
10
atom to determine
its reactivity
Benchmark Review and
Assessment
The Science Spot:
Chemistry – Matter, Atoms,
& More
http://www.sciencespot.net
/Pages/kdzchem.html
1 week
11
4th Nine Weeks
Standard
8.5 Differentiate
between ionic and
covalent bonds.
8.5.1 Illustrating the
transfer or sharing of
electrons using electron
dot diagrams
“I Can” Statements
Resources
Pacing
Recommendation
Describe how electrons
are transferred between
atoms to create new
compounds.
Pearson:
Ch. 4 Atoms and Bonding
2.5 weeks
Differentiate between ionic
and covalent bonds, and
illustrate the sharing of
electrons using electron
dot diagrams.
PhET
Build a Molecule
Draw the valence
electrons of an atom using
the Lewis Dot model.
Use electron dots to show
how atoms bond to each
other and to different
atoms.
ALEX
Laying the Foundation:
 Chemical
Nomenclature
AMSTI:
Mixtures, Compounds and
Elements
Vocabulary
Chemical Bonds
Chemical Formula
Ion
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds
Metallic Bonds
Valence Electrons
Electron Transfer
Electron Dot Diagram
Polar Bond
Non Polar Bond
Single Bond
Double Bond
Triple Bond
Subscript
Cation
Anion
Other:
Bonding Basics
http://www.sciencespot.net
/Media/bondingbasics08_w
kst.pdf
Candy Compounds
http://www.sciencespot.net
/Media/candycompounds.p
df
12
8.4 State the law of
conservation of matter.
Identify the components of
a chemical reaction.
8.4.1 Balancing
chemical equations by
adjusting coefficients
State the law of
conservation of matter.
Balance equations and
identify the type of reaction
in the equation.
Pearson:
Chapter 5 Chemical
Reactions
ALEX
PhET Simulations:
 Reactants, Products,
and Leftovers
 Balancing Chemical
Equations
2.5 weeks
Reactant
Product
Exothermic Reaction
Endothermic Reaction
Chemical Equation
Law of Conservation of mass
Coefficient
Synthesis Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Replacement Reaction
Activation Energy
Laying the Foundation:
 Cool Chemical
Reaction
AMSTI:
Mixtures, Compounds and
Elements
Other:
New Bubble Gum Lab
http://www.teacherweb.co
m/FL/StonemanDouglasH
S/.../-NEW-bubble-gumlab.pdf
Science Spot
 Chemical Reactions
 Balancing Act
13

Balancing Equations
Online
http://www.sciencespot.net
/Pages/classchem.html
8.7.1 Explaining effects
of temperature,
concentration, surface
area, and catalysts on
the rate of chemical
reactions
Define rate of a reaction.
Describe the effects that
catalysts, inhibitors,
surface area, and
concentration have on the
rate of chemical reactions.
Pearson:
Chapter 5 Chemical
Reactions Lesson 3
ALEX
PhET Simulations:
Reaction Rates
1 week
Reaction Rate
Activation Energy
Concentration
Surface Area
Catalyst
Endothermic Reaction
Exothermic Reaction
Inhibitor
Enzyme
Laying the Foundation:
 Where’s The Heat?:
Investigating
Exothermic and
Endothermic
Processes
AMSTI:
Mixtures, Compounds and
Elements
Other:
New Bubble Gum Lab
http://www.teacherweb.co
m/FL/StonemanDouglasH
S/.../-NEW-bubble-gumlab.pdf
14
8.6 Define solution in
terms of solute and
solvent.
8.6.1 Defining diffusion
and osmosis
8.6.2 Defining isotonic,
hypertonic, and
hypotonic solutions
8.6.3 Describing acids
and bases based on
their hydrogen ion
concentration
Define solution, solute and
solvent.
Pearson:
Chapter 6 Acids, Bases
and Solutions
Define and compare
diffusion and osmosis.
ALEX
Describe properties of
acids and bases including
pH, taste, feel, and
reactivity.
Phet
 Sugar and Salt
Solutions (also OK with
ionic/covalent bonding)
Use pH to compare acidity
and strength of solutions.
Laying the Foundation:
 pH – Developing the
Concept of pH
 Sugar and Salt
Solutions (also OK with
ionic/covalent bonding)
2 weeks
Other:
Osmosis and Diffusion in
an Egg
http://www.biologyjunction.
com/osmosis_diffusion_in_
egg_lab.htm
Solute
Solvent
Solution
Colloid
Suspension
Dilute Solution
Concentrated Solution
Saturated Solution
Solubility
Corrosive
Indicator
Diffusion
Osmosis
Isotonic
Hypotonic
Hypertonic
Acid
Base
Hydrogen Ion
Hydroxide Ion
pH Scale
Neutralization
Salt
GEMS Alíen Juice Bar
http://scienceview.berkeley
.edu/showcase/flash/juiceb
ar.html
Cabbage Indication pH
Lab
www.middleschoolscience.
com/cabbage.htm
Benchmark
1 week
15
Various Activities for
finish year
1 week
16
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Eighth Grade Physical Science