Chapter 19: The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and Nationalism in
the 19th century
What was the task of the Congress of Vienna?
The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact
 enormous leap in industrial production
 coal and steam replaced wind and water
 factories replaced “putting-out” or Cottage Industry
 Fundamentally changed the world
 Enclosure Movement, urbanization
 Creation of a wealth industrial middle class, and huge industrial working
class (white collar vs. blue collar workers)
 Negative environmental impacts (pollution, overproduction, life expectancy
in beginning)
The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
 Began in Britain around 1750 due to Land, Labor, and Capital
 Enclosure Movement- wealthy landholders enclosed their land with fences,
got rid of common land, poor farmers either moved to cities or became
tenants, experimentation with crops, ex: crop rotation led to food surplus,
and then population increase, surplus labor looking for work
 British people had more money to purchase manufactured goods
 Britain also had capital for investment…central bank and credit
 Entrepreneurs
 Mineral resources in Britain: COAL and IRON ORE…island with deep harbors
 Parliament passed business friendly laws
 Great Britain had assembled a vast colonial empire, as the expense of its
leading rivals, the Dutch Republic and France…colonies served 2 purposes:
cheap raw materials and MARKETS for their manufactured goods
Changes in Textile Production
 Flying shuttle on loom- doubled output of weavers
 James Hargreaves: spinning jenny-spinning yarn
 Edmund Cartwright: water loom- weaving cloth
 Factories next to rivers
 James Watt: Steam engine…at first invented to pump water from mines=
more coal…then engines applied to spinning and weaving
 1760: British imported 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton, 1787 British
imported 22 Million pounds of cotton, 1840 British imported 366 million
pounds of cotton
Other Technological Changes
Henry Cort: invented puddling for iron industry…coke, derived from coal,
used to burn away impurities in pig iron
New high quality wrought iron
1804: Richard Trevithick- first steam powered locomotive (5mph)
George Stevenson’s Rocket- first railway line- Liverpool to
By 1840: Britain had 6,000 miles of railroads
The industrial Factory
 Factory created a new labor system
 Unskilled labor
 Child labor
 Transition of life…clocks…workweek
 Great Britain: “workshop, banker, and trader of the world”
The Spread of Industrialization
 Began in Great Britain, then spread to Western Europe and the United States
Industrialization on the Continent
 Belgium, German States, France
 Began after about 1815
 Borrowed a lot of British technology
 Continental Governments more involved in industrialization than in
England…funding, oversight, etc
 Joint-Stock Investment Bank: pooled the savings of thousands of small and
large investors- capital put back into economy
The Industrial Revolution in the United States
 1800 6/8 Americans were farmers
 1860- US population from 5 million to 30 million…50% farmers
 transcontinental railroad
 Northeast- primary industrial center
 Most workers in textile and shoe factories were women
 Growing manufacturing center, abundance of raw materials, and elaborate
transportation system: turned US into world’s 2nd largest industrial nation by
end of the 19th century
Limiting the Spread of Industrialization in the Rest of the World
 Russia: still largely rural and agricultural- serfdom until 1861
 Newly industrialized European states pursued a deliberate policy of
preventing the growth of mechanized industry in the areas where they had
established control
 Ex: Cotton industry in INDIA…British East India Company destruction of
traditional Indian hand-made cloth (hand spinning wheel)
Social Impact of Industrial Revolution
 Growth of cities and emergence of new social classes
Population Growth and Urbanization
 European population increased dramatically in the 19th century
 Decline in death rates…plague and smallpox were less frequent
 Cities and towns grew rapidly
 Steam engine- urban centers
 By 1850: more than half of the British population lived in towns and cities
 Miserable living conditions for many
 Tenements…5-6 people in one bed
 Open sewers…human waste
 Charles Dickens; realism
The Industrial Middle Class
 Bourgeois/ burgher: town dweller…to middle class
 New industrial middle class (white collar vs. blue collar workers)
 Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
The Industrial Working Class
 12 to 16 hour a day work shifts/ 6 days a week
 no job security/minimum wage
 textile mills and coal mines
o deformed bodies/ ruined lungs
 Children- small hands and “delicate touch” for cotton spinning
 Children made 1/6 to 1/3 what a man did
 Factory Act of 1833: prohibited employment of children under the age of
 Children were replaced by women in the workplace
 New pattern of work based on separation of work and home
Did Industrialization bring an Improved Standard of Living?
 altered the lives of Europeans…left farms, moved to cities, went to factories
 Was it better?
 Industrialization increased employment and lowered the price of consumer
 More members of family could work and contribute
 However, wages were not uniform and jobs were volatile, cramped and
unsanitary conditions
 Middle Class were the real gainers in the Industrial Revolution
Efforts at Change
 Socialism: Marxist analysis of human society (utopian socialists)
Robert Owen, British cotton manufactuer…utopian socialist…transformed
factory town in Scotland, tried to replicate its success in New Harmony,
Indiana, but it didn’t work out
Trade Unions: formed by skilled laborers in a number of industries (ex: coal
miners and ironworkers)
o Strike
o Collective bargaining
o Largest Union in Britain: Amalgamated Society of Engineers (1851)
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity
 After 1870, Western world experienced a boom in material prosperity
 New industries, sources of energy, and new goods- believed material
progress represented human progress
New Products
 substitution of steel for iron
 Electricity as new form of energy: heat, light, and motion
o Light Bulb (Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan)
o Alexander Graham Bell: telephone
o Guglielmo Marconi: first radio waves across the Atlantic
 Internal combustion engine: fired by oil and gasoline
o Ocean liners, airplanes, automobiles
 Henry Ford: mass production of Model T automobile…assembly line
 Orville and Wilbur Wright first flight in a fixedwing airplane in Kitty Hawk,
NC (Mother of Aviation- born in LoCo)
New Patterns
 Industrial production grew rapidly because of increased sale of
manufactured goods
 Germany replaced Britain by 1914 as the industrial leader of Europe
 Department Stores
Emergence of a World Economy
 Growth of marine transport and railroads
 International trade increased dramatically
 Europe dominated the world economy by the beginning of the 20th century
The Spread of Industrialization
 Surge of industrialization in Russia- 1890’s under Sergei Witte, minister for
finance…massive railroad construction…rapid growth of modern steel and
coal industry…Russia 4th largest producer of steel and ½ world’s production
of oil
 Japan…imperial government took lead in promoting industry…government
financed industries, built railroads, brought foreign experts to train Japanese
employees…instituted universal education system…key industries in tea, silk,
armaments, and shipbuilding
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
 Working-class women: struggle to define role in society
 Second Industrial Revolution: new jobs for women…white-collar
jobs…clerks, typists, secretaries, telephone operators, teachers, nurses
Organizing the Working Classes
 The Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels…published in 1848
Marxist Theory
 Opening words: “the history of hitherto existing society is the history of class
 Class Struggle between the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat
 Uprising of Proletariat to Socialism to Communism
 Closing words: “Proletarians of the world, Unite!”
 Classless society
Socialist Parties
 Workers Parties
Revisionism and Trade Unions
 pure Marxists- revolutionary socialism
 trade unions won the right to strike
Reaction and Revolution: The Growth of Nationalism
 Industrialization was a major force for change in the 19th century as it led the
West into the machine-dependent modern world…nationalism which
transformed the political map of Europe in the 19th century
The Conservative Order
 After the defeat of Napoleon, European rulers moved to restore much of the
old order
 Goal of the great powers at the Congress of Vienna- Great Britain, Austria,
Prussia, and Russia- Congress of Vienna 1814
o Leader of Congress of Vienna was Austrian Foreign Minister- Austrian
foreign minister- Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
o Claimed he was guided at Vienna by LEGITIMACY- restoring previous
ruling families back on throne
 Ex: France from Napoleon to Louis XVIII (Bourbon monarchy)
 Ex: Spain- Joseph Napoleon replaced by former family
 Conservatism- ideology favored organized religion as crucial to social order,
hated revolutionary upheavals, and unwilling to accept either the liberal
demands for civil liberties and representative governments or the
nationalistic aspirations from the French revolutionary era
Concert of Europe- created to maintain the status quo…Great Britain, Russia,
Prussia, Austria (later France) agreed to meet periodically in conferences to
take steps that would maintain the peace in Europe
Intervention: policy to assert rights to send armies into countries where
there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones.
Forces for Change
 Liberalism and Nationalism also at work against conservatism
 Liberalism: grew from the Enlightenment of 18th century and American and
French Revolutions; based on idea that people should be as free from
restraint as possible.
 Politically, liberals came to hold a common set of beliefs
o Protection of civil liberties
o Basic rights of all people
o Equality before the law
o Freedom of assembly, speech, and the press
o Freedom from arbitrary arrest
o Protection through American Bill of Rights or French Declaration of
Rights of Man the Citizen
o Most liberals advocated separation of church and state
o Right of peaceful opposition to the government
o Making of laws by a representative
o Many liberals believed in constitutional monarchy
 Liberals were NOT democrats…thought right to vote and hold office should
be open only to men who owned property.
o Liberals also believed in LAISSEZ-FAIRE principles rejected state
interference in the regulation of wages and work hours
o Liberals were mostly middle-class men, especially the industrial
 Nationalism: even more powerful ideology for change in the 19th century
o Common institutions, traditions, language, and customs
o “nation” as focus of the individual’s primary political loyalty
o Belief that each nationality should have its own government
o Ex: German unity…but Hungarians wanted their own nation
 Nationalism: threat to the existing political order…especially from the
Congress of Vienna 1815
Revolution and Reform, 1830-1832
The Revolutions of 1848
Revolution in Central Europe
Revolts in the Italian States
Nationalism in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Question
The Crimean War
National Unification and the National State, 1848-1871
The Unification of Italy
The Unification of Germany
Nationalism and Reform: The European National State at Mid-Century
Great Britain
The Austrian Empire
The European State, 1871-1914
Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy
Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order
International Rivalries and the Winds of War
The Ottoman Empire and the Nationalism in the Balkans
Crisis in the Balkans, 1908-1913

Chapter 19: The Beginnings of Modernization: Industrialization and