Unit 2 Vocab and Questions
Atomic Structure, Periodic Table, and Nuclear Chem. (Chapter 2, 6, 21)
Due:
Learning Goals Chapter 2:
Be able to…
1.) Discuss the development of the atom from its earliest model to the modern day atom.
2.) Describe the composition of an atom in terms of protons, neutrons, and electrons
3.) Give the approximate size, relative mass, and charge of an atom, proton, neutron, and
electron.
4.) Write the chemical symbol for an element, having been given its mass number and
atomic number, and perform the reverse operation.
5.) Describe the properties of the electron as seen in cathode rays.
6.) Describe Millikan’s oil-drop experiment and indicate what property of the electron he
was able to measure.
7.) Describe the experimental evidence for the nuclear nature of the atom.
8.) Use the periodic table to determine the atomic number, atomic symbol, and atomic
weight of an element.
9.) Define the terms group and period and recognize the common groups of elements.
10.) Use the periodic table to predict whether an element is metallic, non-metallic or a
metalloid.
11.) Define the term molecule and recognize which elements typically combine to form
molecules
12.) Distinguish between empirical and molecular formulas
13.) Calculate the atomic weight of an element given its natural distribution of isotopes and
isotopic masses.
14.) Use the periodic table to predict the charges of monatomic ions of non-transition
elements.
15.) Write the symbol and charge for an atom or ion having been given the number of protons,
neutrons, electrons and perform the reverse operation.
16.) Determine whether a substance is likely to be ionic or molecular (covalent)
17.) Write the simplest formula of an ionic compound having been given the charges of ions
from which it is made.
18.) Write and name polyatomic ions
19.) Write formulas and name (from formulas) ionic and molecular compounds
20.) Write and name acids based on anions whose names end in –ide, -ate, and –ite.
Unit 2 Vocab and Questions
Atomic Structure, Periodic Table, and Nuclear Chem. (Chapter 2, 6, 21)
Due:
Learning Goals Chapter 6:
Be able to…
6.1 Electromagnetic Radiation:
1. Describe the wave properties and characteristic speed of propagation of radiant energy
(electromagnetic radiation)
2. Use the relationship  = c, which relates wavelength ( and the frequency (v) of radiant
energy to is speed (c).
6.2 Quantization of Energy:
3. Explain the essential feature of Planck’s quantum theory, namely, that the smallest
increment, or quantum, of radiant energy of frequency, v, that can be emitted or absorbed
is hv, where h is Planck’s constant.
6.3 Line Spectra and the Bohr model:
4. Explain the origin of the expression line spectra.
5. List the assumptions made by Bohr in his model of the hydrogen atom.
6. Explain the concept of an allowed energy state and how this concept is related to the
quantum theory.
7. Calculate the energy differences between any two allowed energy states of the electron in
hydrogen.
8. Explain the concept of ionization energy.
6.4, 6.5, 6.6 Principles of Modern Quantum Theory:
9. Calculate the characteristic wavelength of a particle from a knowledge of its mass and
velocity
10. Describe the uncertainty principle and explain the limitation it places on our ability to
define simultaneously the location and momentum of a subatomic particle, particularly an
electron.
11. Explain the concepts of orbital, electron density, and probability as used in the quantummechanical model of the atom: Explain the physical significance of 2.
12. Describe the quantum numbers, n, l, ml, and ms used to define an orbital in an atom and
list the limitations placed on the values each may have.
13. Describe the shapes of the s, p, and d orbitals.
6.7 Energies of Orbitals in many-electron atoms.
14. Explain why electrons with the same value of principal quantum number (n) but different
values of the azimuthal quantum number (l) possess different energies.
6.8 Electronic Structure of many-electron atoms
15. Explain the concepts of electron spin and the electron spin quantum number.
16. State the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, and illustrate how they are used in
writing the electronic structures of the elements.
17. Write the electron configuration for any element.
18. Write the orbital diagram representation for electron configurations of atoms.
6.9 The Periodic Table…
19. Describe what we mean by the s, p, d, and f blocks of elements.
20. Write the electron configuration and valence electron configuration for any element once
you know its place in the periodic table.
Unit 2 Vocab and Questions
Atomic Structure, Periodic Table, and Nuclear Chem. (Chapter 2, 6, 21)
Due:
Learning Goals Chapter 21:
Be able to…
21.1, 2, 3: Radioactivity, Nuclear Stability, and Nuclear Transmutation:
1. Write the nuclear symbols for protons, neutrons, electrons, alpha particles, and positrons.
2. Complete and balance nuclear equations, having been given all but one of the particles
involved.
3. Write out the shorthand notation for a nuclear reaction or given the shorthand notation,
write the nuclear reaction.
4. Determine the effect of different types of decay on the proton-neutron ratio and predict
the type of decay that a nuclear will undergo based on its composition relative to the belt
of stability.
5. Calculate the binding energies of nuclei, having been given their masses and the masses
of protons, electrons, and neutrons.
21.4, 5, 6, 9: Radioactivity: Rates of Decay, Detection, Energy Changes, and Biological Effects:
6. Use the half-life of a substance to predict the amount of radioisotope present after a given
period of time.
7. Explain how radioisotopes can be used in dating objects and as radiotracers.
8. Calculate half-life, age of an object, or the remaining amount of radioisotope, having
been given any two of these pieces of information.
9. Using Einstein’s relation, E = c2m, to calculate the energy change or the mass change
of a reaction, having been given one of these quantities.
10. Explain how radioactivity is detected, including a simplified description of the basic
design of a Geiger counter.
11. Explain the roles played by the chemical behavior of an isotope and its mode of
radioactivity in determining its ability to damage biological systems.
12. Define the units used to describe the level of radioactivity (curie) and to measure the
effects of radiation on biological systems (rem and rad).
13. Describe various sources of radiation to which the general population is exposed, and
indicate the relative contributions of each.
21.7, 8: Nuclear Fission and Fusion:
14. Define fission and fusion, and state which types of nuclei produce energy when
undergoing these processes.
15. Describe the design of a nuclear power plant, including an explanation of the role of fuel
elements, control rods, moderator, and cooling fluid.
Main Goals restated/made more concise:
1. Identify the products of nuclear transformation processes.
2. Interconvert between the half-life of a nuclide and the amount of that nuclide remaining
after a specific amount of time.
3. Be familiar with critical mass, fusion/fission, mass defect, binding energy, nucleon,
strong nuclear force, differences in penetrating power, and the ionizing ability of alpha,
beta, and gamma radiation.
4. Use a graph to predict the type of decay that will occur.
Unit 2 Vocab and Questions
Atomic Structure, Periodic Table, and Nuclear Chem. (Chapter 2, 6, 21)
Due:
Textbook Questions:
Chapter 2 (20 questions)
2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.10, 2.13, 2.14, 2.16, 2.18, 2.20, 2.21, 2.29, 2.31, 2.36, 2.38, 2.42, 2.59, 2.60, 2.84,
2.85, 2.87
Chapter 6 (23 questions)
Radiant Energy: 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.21, 6.23, 6.25, 6.26, 6.39, 6.40, 6.43,
6.55, 6.56, 6.60, 6.63, 6.68, 6.71, 6.79, 6.80
Chapter 21 (9 questions)
21.2, 21.3, 21.6, 21.8, 21.24, 21.7, 21.29, 21.30, 21.34
Vocabulary: Chose 8 words per chapter (Picture, Definition, Sentence)
Chapter 2
Chapter 6
Chapter 21
1. Cathode ray
1. electromagnetic radiation
1. radioisotopes
2. Subatomic
2. wavelength
2. alpha particles
Particles
3. frequency
3. beta particles
3. Atomic Mass Units
4. quantum
4. positron
4. Angstroms
5. Planck’s constant
5. gamma radiation
5. Isotopes
6. photoelectric effect
6. nuclear
6. Mass spectrometer
7. photon
transmutations
7. Molecular
8. spectrum
7. particle accelerators
Compounds
9. Bohr’s Atom
8. half-life
8. Polyatomic Ions
10. ground state
9. Geiger counter
9. Cations
11. excited state
10. fission
10. Anions
12. Atomic spectra
11. nuclear reactor
11. Diatomic
13. orbitals
12. fusion
molecules
14. quantum numbers
12. chemical formula
15. electron spin
13. empirical formula
16. spin magnetic quantum number
14. molecular formula
17. Pauli exclusion principle
18. electron configuration
19. Hund’s rule
20. representative elements
21. transition elements
22. f-block metals
23. Effective Nuclear Charge
24. ionization energy
25. electron affinity
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Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chem