CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
This chapter discusses the background of the research, the research problem,
the research objective, the significance of the research, the scope and limitation and
the definition of key terms.
A. Background of the Research
The technology of communication has developed quickly. At present, the
most popular phenomenon of communication technology is mobile phone. It is a
radios and particularly telephone that can be used almost anywhere. 1 It seems
very difficult for everyone to do a long distance communication if they do not
have a mobile phone.
In this modern era, a mobile phone is equipped with many features, such as
camera, video, radio, Mp3 player, MMS, SMS, and 3G, Internet and many
others. However, from all the features people will not leave out one of the basic
features of a mobile phone that is SMS (short message service). This kind of
feature still becomes the most preferred feature because it tends to be cheaper
than making a call. Moreover, the capacity of a massage is larger now days; it
can be more than 160 characters per massage. Thus people will thing that it is
1
Family Encyclopedia. Scotland: geddes & grossed, 2003
1
2
enough to write a message rather than make a call when they want to talk about
something.
Technologies force us to recognize the existence of virtual speech
communities similarly; the effects of globalization on the formation of social
identities invite us to consider the evaluation and use of language in new kinds of
speech communities. Actually SMS users are a speech community. According to
Willey and Sons define speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that
describes a more or less discrete group of people who use language in a unique
and mutually accept way among themselves. 2 Saville-Troike says that speech
community might be considered as part of another larger one or might be
subdivided into smaller groups.3 In addition, Cheshire says that:
Speech communities can be members of a profession with a
specialized jargon. Distinct social groups like high schools
students or hip-hop fans, or even tight-knit groups likes
families or friends, online and other mediated
communicates, such as Wikipedia, often constitute speech
communities.4
SMS users express their ideas, tell stories or share anything through a
SMS. The language of SMS users is sometimes different from that of non SMS
users. In fact, SMS users like to use abbreviations, symbols and code switching
in their community. Labov says that: Speech community may involve rulers of
2
Webster new world college dictionary. (Cleveland: willey publishing, 2009) Internet Html,
accessed on mart 08, 2010)
3
Wikipedia. 2008, (http// www. Learnnc. Org/ Lp/ pages/ 4558. Internet Html, accessed on mart
08, 2010)
4
Ibid.,
3
speaking and interpretations of speech performance or shared evaluative norms
governing patterns of social and stylistic variation.5
Cheshire says that: people that use code switching in their conversation are
membership in a speech community.6 SMS users tend to change their language
depending on the needs and situation in their societies. As a result, people who
send a message through SMS often switch language.
Code switching happen both in oral and written language. Here, it may also
occur in written language, for example, in a SMS massage. SMS users switch
from Javanese to Indonesian or English or the other way round. Code switching
is a common for members to speak two or more different dialects and to use one
dialect rather than another in particular social situation. 7 According to Romaine
a speak more than one language often involves putting together material from
two language is a part of the normal process of growing up bilingually and
acquiring competence in more than one language”. 8 Referring to Suzanna
Romaine, SMS users as bilinguals and multilingual normally switch from one
language to another in SMS messages.
Gumperz, on the contrary, states that with the increasing displacement of
formerly stable population and growing ethnic diversification of metropolitan
5
Ibid.,
Ibid.,
7
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010. (http:// www. Britannia. Com/ Ebchecked/ topic/123903/ code
switching, Internet Html, accessed on mart 08, 2010)
8
Suzanne Romaine, Language in Society-An introduction to sociolinguistic, (USA: Oxford,
2000), p. 102
6
4
centers, the communicative uses of code switching are more likely to increase
than to decrease. 9 Moreover, with developing technologies of communication,
for example internet or mobile phone, exactly it can increase of using of code
switching in communication both oral and written.
Gumperz says that code switching is the most frequently found in the
informal speech of those members of cohesive minority groups in modern
urbanizing regions who speak the native tongue at home, whole using the
majority language at work and when dealing with members of groups other than
their own.10 Based on the Gumperz’ statement, SMS users are people that use
code switching in their communication as part of member of community.
There are great attentions from researchers in the field of Sociolinguistics
in studying the phenomenon of code switching. They study in code switching as
it is used in the novels, music, essay, etc.
Radmah Sorayu Mahdani (2005) analyzed of code switching and code
mixing in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simona. In this research it is
found out that the context in which the characters do code switching and code
mixing is informal situation. They use code switching and code mixing to
express their feelings and emotions, such as anger, empathy, or just usual
statement. In this case, they feel more comfortable to do code switching and code
9
John J. Gumperz, Discourse Strategies. (USA: Cambridge university press, 1971), p. 64
Ibid., p. 6
10
5
mixing because they do not want to be too melancholic if they just use
Indonesian language in their dialogues.
Ifa (2007) examined code switching Indonesian pop song. The result of her
study showed that Indonesian pop song composers do code switching because
they mostly talk about particular topics, namely love, unity, and they intend to
“show of” their group identity as Indonesian pop song composers who are able to
code switch in to English in their composed songs. There is another reason of the
use of code switching by some Indonesian pop song composers probably because
they want to attract the prospective buyers, especially teenagers who cannot
detach their life from music and/or song.
Sulistyaningrum (2005) on the other hand, in her analysis of code
switching in Umar Kayam’s collected essay Mangan Ora Mangan Kumpul found
out types of code switching and the reasons of code switching in the collected
essay. The results show that there are some types of code switching based on the
scope or the nature of juncture where language changes take place, they are: Intra
sentential code switching which involves a single noun from other language, a
noun phrase, a verb phrase, a verb, an adjective and an independent clause, Inter
sentential code switching, Emblematic code switching, Continuing the previous
speaker, Changing the pronunciation features; and Code switching within word
The study also found that Umar Kayam uses code switching for some
reasons, they are: Repetition used for clarification; Ease of expression;
Quotation/ quoting somebody else’s opinion; Personalization and objectification;
6
Message qualification; Softening or strengthening request or command; Talking
about particular topic; Specific use of interjection/ discourse markers; Real
lexical needs/ diesis; Expressing group identity/ addresses specification;
Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutors.
In classifying types of code switching based on the nature juncture where
language change takes place, I am as researcher use the modified types of
Hoffman’s and Saville-Throike theories. They consider a single noun from
another language as one different kind of intra-sentential code switching. In fact,
I found that it can be included into intra-sentential code switching which involves
a word within a sentence. Hoffman states that: “this form of code switching (a
word within a sentence) is uttered within a sentence involving nouns, verbs,
adjectives, etc”.11
In this research, I want to go to describe code switching which occur writer
produced by students of STAIN Tulungagung in their SMS. I am interested in
studying this phenomenon because I am curious why they tend to switch from
Javanese to Indonesian, English or another way around I also want to analyze
what types of code switching accruing in the SMS message.
B. Research problems
Based on the background of the study in preceding discussion the
following research problems are formulated:
11
Charlotte Hoffman, An introduction to Bilingualism, (New York: Longman, 1991), p. 1
7
1) What are the types of code switching in SMS messages sent by students
of STAIN Tulungagung?
2)
What are the possible reasons of code switching in SMS messages sent
by students of STAIN Tulungagung?
C. Research objectives
Based on the research problems above, the research objectives are as
follows:
1) To find out the types of code switching in SMS message sent by students
of STAIN Tulungagung
2) To find out the possible reason for code switching in SMS message sent
by student of STAIN Tulungagung.
D. Significance of the research
Theoretically, this research is expected to enrich Sociolinguistic study,
especially the study of code switching. In addition in this research is expected to
give valuable contribution to the theoretical use of code switching. Practically,
this research is expected to broaden the knowledge of language learners,
especially English students, to respect to the phenomenon of code switching used
in SMS message.
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E. Scope of the research
The research is intended to analyze the phenomenon of code switching
from Javanese to Indonesian or English or the other way around, found in SMS
message sent by student of STAIN Tulungagung.
F. Definition of key terms
From the research problem above, this study focuses on code switching
sent by students of STAIN Tulungagung. In order to avoid ambiguity and
misunderstanding, some of key terms used in this research are need to be defined
as follows:
1.
SMS (short message service) is a system for sending short written message
from one mobile phone to another.12
2.
SMS message are message sent by SMS.13
3.
Code switching is a change by a speaker (on written) from one language or
language variety to another one.14
4.
Students of STAIN Tulungagung are some students in STAIN
Tulungagung who are able speak Javanese, Indonesia and English in their
live.
Homby, Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary ,(Oxford: Oxford university press,2005), p.1445
Ibid, P. 1445
14
Ronald Wardhaugh, An introduction to sociolinguistic, (USA: Basil Blackwell, 2002) p.102
12
13
9
G. Organisation of the Study
The organisation of this thesis is given in order to understand the content of
this thesis as follow:
Chapter I is introduction. This chapter deals with the background of the
research, the research problem, the research objective, the significance of the
research, the scope and limitation, the definition of key terms and organisation of the
study.
Chapter II is underlying theory presented in review of related. This chapter also
concerns with the theories of code switching and topics related, to speech community,
bilingualism, the definition, the types, and the reason of code switching.
Chapter III is research mothod. This chapter consist of the research design,
research instrument, source of data, subject of the research, procedure of collecting
data and data analysis.
Chapter IV deal with the research findings and discussion. The discussion in
this chapter consists of two sections: (1) the types of code switching in SMS
messages sent by students of STAIN Tulungagung and (2) the reasons of using code
switching in SMS messages sent by students of STAIN Tulungagung.
Chapter V is related to the conclusion and suggestion.