Study Guide for Final Exam
Topics On Test:
I. The Compound Light Microscope:
A. How is total magnification determined? Eye piece X objective lens
B. What happens to image of object when viewed under microscope?
Is upside-down and reverse
C. In what power objective is the field of view are larger? (see more of
whole image)_Low power__
D. In what power objective do we see more detail? High power
II. Living Features and Functions:
1. All living things (organisms) are made of cell(s)
Cell (definition)-_Is the basic unit of structure and function of all living
things
Cell Theory:
1._All living things are made up of 1 or more cells
2. _Cells are the basic unit of function
3. Cells come from preexisting cells.
2. All organisms can respond to the environment:
All organism maintain an internal balance (homeostasis)
Ex. Keeping an even body temperature: __sweat when hot,
__shivering_ when cold.
3. All organisms do similar functions:
Metabolism- The sum of all chemical reactions within an organism (building,
breaking down, storing and using energy)
Examples of metabolic activities in organisms:
Digestion: breaking down food into nutrients
Excretion-_getting rid of metabolic waste_
4. All organisms need Energy.
A. All energy for life on earth comes indirectly or directly from the _SUN_
B. Energy is passed from organism to organism along a FOOD CHAIN
C. Overlapping food chains in a community is represented as a __FOOD WEB__.
D. Identify an autotrophic organism
in the diagram to right__ANY PLANT.
E. Identify a heterotrophic organism
in the diagram to the right_ANY ANIMAL.
F. The diagram below shows how much energy is available at each level in a food
chain or web is called an __ENERGY PYRAMID.
G. As you read up the pyramid, the amount of energy available at each level
___DECREASES_
H. Know definitions and give examples of:
1. autotroph (producer)- Organism that makes its own food
2. heterotroph (consumer)-Organism that get energy from otherorganisms
3. decomposer—_Organism that breaksdown dead organisms and returns
nutrients to the environment
5. All living Things Can Make More of Themselves (Reproduction)
A. Asexual Reproduction- the production of offspring from _One_ parent.
 Offspring are _100_% genetically identical to parent.
Examples:
Hydra _Budding
Paramecium-__Binary fission
(Type of asexual reproduction)
(Type of asexual reproduction)
B. Sexual Reproduction- the production of offspring from _two
parents. (cells)
Offspring receive _50_% of its genetics from each gamete (sex cell)
sperm
Egg
Fertilization
III. The Cell
1. Organisms are either unicelled __One cell_____ or multicelled__many cells______.
2. Organisms that are multi-celled have cells with specific jobs:
Ex.
Red blood cell_Carry Oxygen_, leaf cell Performs photosynthesis
2. Cells without a nucleus are called _Prokaryotic. Cells with a
nucleus are_Eukariotic.
3. Plant an Animal cell diagrams. Identify the plant or animal cell.
_Animal cell
_Plant__cell
Match the number pointing to the organelle with its proper function:
_3___ control center of cell (contains chromosomes) (name:_nucleus)
_2___stores materials (name: Vacuole)
_4___ filler of cell (circulates, chemical reactions occur here)
(name:_cytoplasm)
_5___supports, nonliving outer layer(name:_cell wall__)
__6__photosynthesis (name:_Chloroplast_)
__1__controls what goes in and out of cell (name:_cell membrane_)
IV. Cell Processes:
1. Photosynthesis: process of making_food (glucose)_ using the sun’s energy
6 H2O + 6CO2 + light Energy
C6H12O6 + 6O2
Performed by _Chloroplast_(ex. _plants_, _algae_, some protists)
2. Respiration: process of getting ENERGY out of food by adding _Oxygen_
C6H12O6 + 6O2
ATP energy + 6H2O + 6CO2
3. Cell Reproduction:
a. Mitosis – cell production making _Somatic cells (diploid)(body cells)
b. Meiosis- cell production making gametes(haploid) (sex cells-egg and sperm)
c. Which type of cell contains the full amount of hereditary material? somatic
cells diploid
d. Which type of cell contains one half the hereditary material? _gametes
(haploid)
4. Passive and Active Transport: how substances enter and leave a cell
through the cell membrane.
a. Passive transport- no energy, molecules move by Difussion
(from a region of _high_ concentration to a region of _low_concentration)
b. Active transport- uses energy
V. Classification:
1. What is the order of the groups of the classification system (from largest to
smallest): Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
2. Organisms in the same species are able to reproduce and produce fertile
offspring.
3. What 2 groups (levels of classification) make up the scientific name of
an organism?
Genus Species example: Canis lupis
VI. Genetics/DNA
1. Genes are found on strands of DNA called Chromosomes which are located in
the nucleus of cells.
2. Define genotype and phenotype. Fill in the information below using the trait
for height in pea plants with alleles:
T = tall
t = short
A. genotype: (definition)_Genetic makeup (alleles)
B. phenotype (definition)_Physical traits characteristics
Phenotype
Genotype
Homozygous tall
_TT_
Homozygous short
_tt__
Heterozygous Tall
_Tt__
C. Be able to do a Punnett Square from a given cross to determine possible
genotypes and phenotypes in offspring.
Ex. In a guinea pig, black fur (B) is dominant over gray fur(b). In the Punnett
Square below, show a cross between 2 hybrid guinea pigs.
Determine the probability based on the Punnett square information:
_75_% black
__25_% gray
B
B
b
BB
Bb
_25_% homozygous black
_25_% homozygous gray
b
Bb
bb
3. Hereditary Material (_DNA_= deoxyribonucleic acid)
a. Makes up _CHROMOSOMES__ in nucleus
b. Fill in the complimentary DNA strand below:
A-___T
T-___A
T-___A
C-___G
G-___C
A-___T
4. karyotype- a diagram showing homologous chromosomes of an individual. It
is used to determine gender and chromosomal disorders.
Gender= ___Female___
Gender= _____Male_
VII . Human Systems
1. Levels of Organization in the Human Body (simplest to complex)
Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
organism
2. Know basic function(s) of major body systems and their parts (organs): Use the
provided description key and word bank to complete the missing information
below:
A. Circulatory System:
1.Function- _Transport (moves) materials.__
2. Parts:
_HEART_=muscular organ that pumps blood about body
_ARTERY_= blood vessels that carry blood away from heart
VEINS_ = blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart
CAPILLARY_ = small blood vessels where gas exchange occur
PLASMA_= liquid part of blood
RED BLOOD CELLS_= blood cells that carry oxygen
WHITE BLOOD CELLS = blood cells that fights infection
PLATELETS_= blood cell parts that aid in clotting
B. Digestive System:
1. Function: break-down of _FOOD_ and absorption of digested nutrients into
_BLOOD_. (Through the villi. Small intestine)
2. Parts (Organs): Label the organs in the diagram below:
mouth
a. In which organ does digestion begin? Mouth
esophagus
b. In which organ does digestion end?_Small Intestine__
liver
stomach
Pancreas
C. Respiratory System
L. intestine
S. Intestine
1. Function:_Bring oxygen into the body (blood)___
2. Parts: List the order in which oxygen enters the body.
Nose- _pharynx, trachea, bronchi_, _bronchioles, alveoli (lungs)
3. In which part does the oxygen enter the bloodstream and carbon dioxide exit
the bloodstream? alveoli
D. Excretory System (Urinary System)
1. Function: filtration of cellular _waste_ from __blood__.
kidney
2. Parts : Label the organs below.
3. What is organ (X) that accomplishes the task of filtration?
_kidney_
ureter
bladder
urethra
E. Nervous System
1. Function: controls body using electrical_messages.
2. Parts of the brain and their functions:
A. Cerebrum
B Cerebellum
C
medulla
3. Describe the function(s) of each part:
A. _controls voluntary movement, learning, etc.._
B. _coordinates balance_
C. _Involuntary movements__
F. Endocrine System
1. Function: control the body with chemicals called hormones.
2. Organs of the Endocrine System are called _glands_.
3. Study the diagram below:
G. Muscular System:
1. Function:_Movement_
2. Label the structures of the arm:
A. tendon
B. muscle
C. ligament
D. bone
H. Skeletal System
1. Identify the 5 functions of the skeletal system
a. protects _internal organs__
b. attachment to muscles for motion/movement
c. stores _calcium_ & _phosphorus_
d. provides _shape__ & _support___
e. bone marrow makes _blood cells
I. Reproductive System
1. Function(s):
a. Produces gametes (_sperm)male and (_egg__)female
b. Allows for continuation of species by producing offspring_