Three Part Lesson Overall Expectations: 1. Students will know the properties of different 2D and 3D geometric figures using concrete materials and tangible representations 2. Build and analyze 3D objects and models Specific Expectations: 1. Describe and name 3D figures 2. Describe the attributes of regular polygons using geometric language (e.g. sides, vertices) 3. Compare and sort 3D figures according to geometric attributes 4. Build a structure using 3D figures and describe 2D and 3D shapes Social Learning: 1. Students will learn to work both in whole group and a small group setting 2. Students will learn to be respectful of others opinions and to listen critically and actively in order to determine whether another’s strategy might be applicable for them. 3. Students will learn the importance of “mathematical power”. This means that students will gain confidence and empowerment because of their knowledge and skills and the ability to determine viable strategies to solve problems. Previous Knowledge Required: 1. Students should be familiar with some of the basic properties of 3D objects (geometric solids). 2. Students should be familiar with some of the proper terminology for these properties. (e.g. A vertex is a corner or point of intersection, where edges meet. A face is a flat surface. An edge is where two faces meet.) 3. Students should have been introduced to the number of faces/edges/vertices that a 3D object has. 4. Students should have been introduced to whether or not a 3D object can roll or slide. 5. Students should have been asked to find examples of solids in the classroom, their homes and the world around them. Grade 2: Time Frame 2 – 60 Minute Lessons ***This lesson would be the second and third activity in learning about 3D shapes. Activity One would have been the students in small working groups investigating solids and discovering anything they can about them. After allowing them time to talk and then present their solid and share about it with the whole class I would have introduced the terms vertices, edges and faces. I would have then challenged them to re-examine their solid looking for the vertices, edges and faces and then further asking additional questions about whether is can roll or slide, have a curved face, examples of their solid in everyday life etc. I would add all new words to my Math Word Wall. Students would also have been given time to work on A Closer Look at 3D Objects provided in the assessment package. Materials Collection of geometric solids (e.g. cone, sphere, pyramid etc.) Collection of 3D objects from the everyday life (e.g. can, ice cream cone, ball etc.) Two Hula-Hoops Chart paper Markers Before (10 minutes) All the students should be sitting on the carpet in a large circle. In the center of the circle should be many found materials from everyday life. (e.g. soup can, ice cream cone, cereal box, pencil) Ask the students to look at each of the objects carefully. They should be allowed time to touch them and discuss with an elbow partner some of their thoughts about: - How are these objects alike? How are these objects different? After a few minutes the teacher should hold up one object and discuss with the students: - How many vertices does this object have? - How many faces does this object have? - How many edges does this object have? - What is the name of this 3D object? - Does this shape slide or roll? - Can you think of another object in the world around us that looks similar? During (25 minutes) With a partner or small group, students should select two or three found materials. They may select 3D objects from the carpet, or 3D objects from around the room or 3D objects that they have brought from home. They are to discuss and then record in their math journals: - How many vertices does each object have? - How many faces does each object have? - How many edges does each object have? - What are the names of your 3D object? - Do your objects slide or roll? Why or why not? - Can you think of another object in the world around us that looks similar to your object? After (25minutes) Students will be asked to come back to the carpet with their objects and math journals. The teacher should have put a chart paper on the floor, and place two Hula-Hoops, side by side, on the paper. The teacher and the students should use this Venn diagram in order to sort and re-sort their objects using a variety of sorting rules: - edges/no edges faces/no faces rolls/slides stacks/does not stack It should be noted that at times the hula hoops/circles should be separate (e.g. edge/no edges) and at times the circles should be connected (e.g. rolls/slides/both). Not always is the connected circle needed. Each grouping needs to present their object and discuss it fits into the sorting rule. Activity 3 Grade 2 – Time Frame for lesson 60 minutes Materials book “Shapes, Shapes, Shapes” by Tana Hoban everyday found materials which have “similarities” and “differences” to a geometric solid (e.g. lunch box, funnel, bottle) markers pre-written clues on chart paper or black board Before (10 minutes) Read the story Shapes, Shapes, Shapes by Hoban. Discuss with the children all the 3D objects that the see in the world around them. Re-introduce the terms vertices, faces, edges etc. Discuss with the students how 3D objects in the world are not always “perfect” geometric solids. It might have “similarities” and “differences” to geometric solids. Discuss these words and what they mean. After this discussion these words should be added to the Math Word Wall. During - 25 minutes On desks around the room there should be everyday found objects. There should be clues on the Board: (e.g.) This object is like a cone with a cylinder at the end. This object is a rectangular prism but has a handle. This object is a rectangular prism with a cylinder connected to the top **** The clues can be anything as long as they describe the “similarities” and “differences” to a geometric solid. You could have all the clues on a piece of paper and have the students trying to solve the clues like a scavenger hunt or simply have the clues on the board and the students walking around the desks to try to solve the clue. Students will use these clues to try to guess what object is being described. After – 25 minutes Students will come back to the carpet and discussed how they solved the clue and how they determined what shape the clue was describing. Then they can choose three or four objects that were not described or think of an object at home or around the room and in their math journals create their own clues describing each found materials “similarities” and “differences” to a geometric solid. The Next Lesson: Each student would work with a partner. One of the partners would secretly create a structure using geometric solids (perhaps hidden behind a book). They would then describe their structure for their partner. That partner would then have to try to create the structure for himself following the instructions. At the end of the activity, students should check to see if their structures look the same and then discuss why or why not. Student Groupings Throughout the lessons there are a wide variety of groupings from whole group settings (read aloud on the carpet) to individual setting (journal writing). There are also times for partners (elbow discussions, problem solving structure) and small groups (solving clues). I believe it is important to have a variety of student’s groupings throughout each activity to allow for all learning styles and to further enable students to learn by having “math talk” with each other. Accommodations/Extensions It is very important the before setting off into a collaborative learning environment that the rules and routines have been set in place. Just like anything else these things need to be learned by the students in order to create an effective learning environment for all students. In whole grouping settings it is important that the teacher is aware of the seating plan of the students. Some students need to be sitting closer to the teacher in order to listen more effectively/ESL/behaviour issues etc. With partners it is important that there are a variety of groupings. There should be a mixture of homogeneous and heterogeneous groupings. As Kathy Fosnot says “it is important that in order to facilitate good “math talk” students need to be at the same math level”. ESL students should whenever possible be partnered with someone who can support them. They and other learners may also need more time to complete the given tasks. For students that may be more advanced and finish their work quickly they can simply be given an extra task. (e.g. in the case of the clues perhaps they could be given an extra clue).