HEALTH AND FITNESS JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL (HFJI) Published by HEALTH AND FITNESS ASSOCIATION OF NIGERIA (BASED IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION, UNILORIN) Vo2. No.1 JUNE, 2001. Editor — in —Chief— Professor E.A Ogunsakin, Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Managing Editor — Dr. A.E Talabi, Department of Physical and Health Education, University of Ilorin, P.M.B 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Advisory Committee: Professor L. Emiola - University of Ilorin. Professor O. Oshodin - University of Benin. Professor S. Jimoh - University of Ilorin. Dr. S. Umoh - University of Ilorin. Professor A Adewoye - University of Ilorin. Dr. Danladi Musa - Bayero University Kano EDITORIAL In this first edition of the year 2001, the Health and Fitness Journal International wishes to re-emphasize the fact that Health and Fitness are vital and unseparable in human affairs. Given the increasingly important role that exercise plays in health and vice versa, all exercise and health professionals need to produce more scientifically based educational materials that will provide wholistic exercise and health guidance to the public. We therefore welcome contributions in all human endevours that will make this world a healthier and fitter place. EDITOR-IN- CHIEF Prof. Ogunsakin VOLUME 2 NO. 1 2001 ARTICLES 1. CONTENTS PAGES Emotional Problems of Parents and its Implications on The health and Education of the Girl-Child - Kajang Yakubu Gorak 2. Evidence of Elevated Blood Pressure Among Secondary School Students in Ilorin. -Olaitan, O. ‘Lanre 3. 6 14 Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Cardiorespiratory Fitness Performance of Physical and Health Education Students. - Musa Muhammed Ogidi 20 4. Perception of Aging and Death.- Onifade, O. A. 5. Perceived Factors Associated With Malnutrition and The Implications on The Health of Children - Audu Andrew Jatau 6. 42 Provision of Recreation and Fitness Programmes in Industries Okey A. Umeakuka 8. 34 Student’s Perception of Campus Cultism in Higher Institutions. - Ursula E. Nnabueze 7. 26 51 Effects of Continuous and Circuit Training Programmes On Aerobic Capacity of Female Undergraduates in Bayero University, Kano. - Sadiq Ismaila 9. 56 Accidents to Children in the Home: Causes and Prevention: The Nigerian Experience. - Amunega Stephen Bankole 63 10. Control and Improvement of the Physical Environment Through Sanitation Programme: Review of Conditions in Public Schools in Nigeria. - David W. Bwala & Ibrahim A. Njodi 69 11. The Health Services Appraisal of The Students of Kwara State School For the Handicapped, Ilorin. - Kola Lafinhan 76 EVIDENCE OF ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ILORIN OLAITAN, O ‘LANRE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL OF HEALTH EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN ABSTRACT Incidence of elevated blood pressure was assessed in 296 boys and girls aged 11-18 years in form metropolis. Subjects were grouped into male and female of ages 11-14 years and 15-18 years. Resting blood pressures were assessed using the protocol of the American Heart Association. The result showed significant age and sex difference in blood Pressure. Age group 15-18 (female,) had significantly higher blood pressure than all other groups. The prevalence of hypertension among these groups of subject was 4. 1%, which confirmed that risk factors of hypertension could begin very early in life. The study finally made recommendation to Health authorities, patients and government on how to prevent /reduce risk factors of hypertension in Nigerian youths. INTRODUCTION Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the vessel. The blood pressure is highest at the time of the contraction of the ventricles, which is called “systolic pressure”. Pressure during the ventricular relaxation is called “diastolic pressure” and is principally the result of force exerted by the elastic rebound of the arterial wall (Butcher et al, 1998). Even though, blood pressure is subject to fluctuations, in general, the healthy individual has a systolic pressure of 100 to 120 mm of mercury and diastolic pressure of 60 to 80mm of mercury. Blood pressure is usually expressed as a fraction, for example as 120/8OmmHg, the systolic on top and diastolic value, below. The World Health Organization (1977) defined hypertension as blood pressure equal to or greater than 160/95mm1-Ig. Several studies, Harris (1987), Webber Srinivasan & Berenson (1993) and Lauer of Beaglehole (1984) have documented that hypertension may begin in childhood. It may also be caused by a number of reasons, some of which include the following: Parental socioeconomic status (Balogun et al 1990) Diseases (Shaper, Pocok & Walker 1985) Environmental stress (Musa & Lawal, 2000) Inactivity (Armstrong & Welshman, 1997) These studies have not only confirmed that hypertension may begin very early in life, it also seems to be on the increase especially in Nigeria. Musa &Lawal (2000) recorded 8.1% in Kano, Abduirahaman & Ochoga (1978) reported 3.5% for Kaduna and Balogun et al (1990) reported 4% for Ile- Ife. Hypertension has been identified as one of the major factors involved in the onset of Coronary Health Diseases (CHD), which is a major cause of death in many countries (Shapper, Pocok & Walker, 1985 and Wilmore & Costill, 1994). Framingham, Bagalusa & Muscatine (AHA,1992) identified hypertension as the most potent antecedent of cardiovascular disease. Even though clinical manifestations of CHD risk factors appear later in life, recent epiderniological surveys have indicated that the underlying causes start early in life (Webber et al 1993); American Heart Association (AHA, 1992). Webber et al (1993) observed that those who have elevated blood pressure early in life, stand the risk of becoming hypertensive later in life. Scores of studies have therefore been done on both the adolescent and childhood population (Berenson et al, 1980; Lauer and Shekelle; 1980, etc) to determine how early in life can these underlying risk factors of CHD be identified. Several studies have observed and documented the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescent population in many countries (Berenson et a!, 1980 and 1984, Harris 1987 and Webberetal, 1993). In Nigeria, Musa & Lawal (2000), Balogun et al (1990) and Eferakaye et a! (1 982) have also carried out some studies. There is however paucity of data on levels of blood pressure in adolescent children in Ilorin, Nigeria. The present study was therefore designed to assess the levels of blood pressure among secondary school students in Ilorin. This will help to identify the percentage of the population that has elevated blood pressure. The information may be able to aid government effort on its “Health for All” programme. METHODS AND PROCEDURE A total of 296 secondary school students (196 boys and 100 girls) ranging form 11-1 8years from fifteen schools in Ilorin volunteered to participate in this study. They were stratified into two major groups on the basis of age as follows: 11-14 years and 15-18 years and into two sub-groups on the basis of sex, i.e male and female. Only 296 pupils completed the measurements. BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS Resting blood pressure was taken between 8.00-10.OOarn each day in accordance to the procedure described by Bonne & Zwiren (1993). There measurements were taken in respect of each subject and the average was recorded. Blood pressure levels were considered elevated when they exceeded two standard deviation (i.e. the 95th percentile) above the mean pressure of the sample (Abdulrahaman & Ochoga, 1 978). This corresponds with significant hypertension as defined by the report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure in Children in 1987 (WHO,l987). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Descriptive (mean and standard deviation) statistics were used to analyse the data. Then t-test was used to identify where significant differences existed. The probability of 0.05 or less was set to indicate the level of significance. RESULTS Subject (boys and girls) physical and blood pressure values are presented in table I for ages 11-14 years and Table IT for age’s 1 5-18 years. Table 1: Physical and Blood Pressure Values of Boys and Girls (age 1114 Years) Male n = 108 Variables Female n = 16 Mean (x) S.D Means (x) S.D. Calc. t. value Weight (kg) 37.28 6.99 36.75 4.11 0.432 Height (M) 1.49 0.07 1.53 0.06 2.433 * 102.56 8.54 112.50 5.00 6.644 * 66.26 7.60 67.55 9.57 0.516 Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) n-124 * significant at< 0.01 Table 2: Physical and Blood Pressure Values of Boys and Girls (age 1518 Years) Male n = 88 Variables Female n = 84 Mean (x) S.D Means (x) S.D. Calc. t. value Weight (kg) 41.41 6.66 47.10 7.42 5.284 Height (M) 1.55 0.09 1.57 0.06 1.722 * 108.50 9.10 114.80 10.83 4.121 * 68.82 8.87 74.10 11.67 3.33 * * Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) n-124 * significant at< 0.01 In all the variables measured the older students (age’s 15-18 years) (male & female) showed higher mean values than the younger ones (age’s 11-14 years). The 15- 18 years ages group had significantly higher means values in systolic and diastolic blood pressure for male and only diastolic for female group than 11 -14years old age group. Table 3: Comparison between the two age groups for both male and female categories Sex Variables Male Systolic Blood n = 196 Pressure (mmHg) Diastolic Blood 11-14 yrs 15-18uyrs Calc. t. value 102.56 108.50 4.672 66.26 68.82 2.142 * 112.50 114.80 1.337 * 67.55 74.10 2.417 * Pressure (mmHg) Female Systolic Blood n = 100 Pressure (mmHg) Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) n = 296 * significant at< 0.05 However in the 11-14 years group, the female group had significantly higher weight and systolic pressure and lower diastolic pressure than their male counterpart. In the 15-18 years age group, the female had significantly higher values in weight, systolic and diastolic pressure than their counterparts. All these values were significant at above 0.01 value. (Tables 1 and 2.) ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE The total number of students with elevated blood pressure for both male and female, ages 1 1-l4years and 15 — l8years are presented in Table 4. Using the criterion of 2 standard deviations above the mean as elevated blood pressure, a total of 12 students out of 296 had elevated blood pressure. 4 had elevated systolic pressure while 8 had elevated diastolic pressure. TABLE 4: Prevalence of Elevated Blood Pressure 11-14 years Total N 15-18 years Total Male Female Male Female 108 16 88 84 296 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 12(14.2%) 4.05% 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 4(4.8%) 1.35% 0(0%) 0(0%) 0(0%) 8(9.5%) 2.7% No. & % with Elevated BP No. & % with Elevated SBP No. & % with Elevated DBP DISCUSSION The age gradient in weight, height, systolic and diastolic pressure found in this study is similar with the findings of Reeds (1981), Eferakeya and Ekeocha (1982) and Musa and Lawal (2000). The incidence of elevated blood pressure of 4.05% found in this study clearly confirms that underlying risk factors of hypertension can begin in very early life, The prevalence figures of 4.05% obtained in this study is similar to the 3.5 % reported by Abduirahaman and Ochoga (1978) for Kaduna children and 4% reported by Balogun et al (1990) for Ile- Ife children. It is however different from the prevalence figure of 8.1% reported by Musa and Lawal (2000) for Kano girls. This could be the result of climatic/social — cultural conditions. The result from this study revealed that incidence of elevated blood pressure is more in the girls than the boys. The incidence of elevated BP was found in the 15 I 8years old, male and female and not in the 11-years old male and female. This and other findings in Nigeria clearly is enough evidence that risk factors of hypertension can already be identified very early. It means that health authorities, parents and government should begin early to tackle the problems before it becomes significant. CONCLUSIONS Elevated blood pressure (BP) may not necessarily mean hypertension, but could be a predisposing factor that can lead to hypertension. From this study female students generally had elevated BP than their male counterpart. Even females of lower age group have relatively elevated BP than males in both lower & higher age groups. This could mean that girls arc more subjected to more stresses than their male counterparts. Ad1escent hood in girls, is the time of different physical development, which can disturb the minds of the girls. Such development as breasts enlargement, protrusion of hips and monthly period (menstruation) may be strange to the body, thereby subjecting the minds of these girls to serious tension which can lead to elevated Blood Pressure (BP). RECOMMENDATION This study however suggest that physical activity be encouraged among the school aged children, Constant health education to propagate physiological examination of the children will help to prevent this elevated BP and to detect this problem earlier (if already elevated) and thereby prompt solution to it so as not to subject the child to hypertension later in life. REFERENCES Abduirahaman M. B. & Ochoga S.A. (1978). Casual Blood Pressure in School Children’ in Kaduna. ?opical and Geographical Medicine. 38.’ 325329. American Heart Association: Strong, W.B. Deckelbaum, R. J. Gidding, S.S. et a! 1992). Integrated Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Childhood. Circulation. 85(4), 1638-1650 Armstrong N and Welshman. .1. (1907). Young People and Physical Activity: Oxford University Press. Balogun, J.A. Obajuluwa, V. A., Olagun, M.O. et al (1990). 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