Sociology I Final Review
1.
Which discipline defines itself as
“the systematic study of human
society”?
sociology
2.
C. Wright Mills claimed that the
"sociological imagination"
transformed
Personal problems into public issues.
3. The theoretical approach in
sociology that assumes society is a
complex system whose parts work
together to promote solidarity and
stability is the:
structural-functional approach.
4. Herbert Spencer described
human society as having much in
common with:
the human body.
5.
The social-conflict approach
draws attention to:
patterns of social inequality.
6. The
____________________________
approaches are macro-level,
describing societies in broad terms.
structural-functional and socialconflict
7. Which early U.S. sociologist
studied the African American
community, served as a founding
member of the NAACP and received
the first doctorate ever awarded by
Harvard University to a person of
color?
W.E.B. Du Bois
8.
Karl Marx argued that the point
of studying society was:
to bring about needed change.
9. The basic idea of the symbolicinteraction approach is that society
is:
the product of people interacting
in everyday situations.
10. An exaggerated description that
one applies to every person in some
category is referred to as:
a stereotype.
11. Sociologists use the term
"empirical evidence" to refer to:
information we can verify with our
senses.
12. In the process of measurement,
reliability refers to:
whether repeating the
measurement yields consistent
results
13. What concept below refers to
measuring exactly what one intends
to measure?
validity
14. The ideal of objectivity means
that a researcher:
must adopt a stance of personal
neutrality toward the outcome of
the research.
15. If you have been accused of
"androcentricity" in your research,
you are being charged with:
doing the research from a male
perspective
16. What term refers to any change
in a subject's behavior caused by the
awareness of being studied?
the Hawthorne effect
17. A smaller number of people
used to represent an entire
population is called a:
sample
18. In a questionnaire, asking
respondents to identify their income
level from a number of possible
categories represents which of the
following?
a closed-ended format
19. As a part of human culture,
religion is an example of:
nonmaterial culture
20. What is the term for the beliefs,
values, behavior, and material
objects that together constitute a
people's way of life?
culture
21. Mores distinguish between right
and wrong; folkways distinguish
between right and rude.
22. Elements of social control
include:
Sanctions, including rewards &
punishment; Guilt; Shame.
23. The practice of understanding
another culture on its own terms
and using its own standards is
called:
cultural relativism.
24. Cultural universals are cultural
traits that:
are part of every known culture.
25. Which theoretical approach
points out that the sexual "double
standard" is found around the
world?
the sociobiology approach
26. The theoretical approach that
highlights the link between culture
and social inequality is the:
social-conflict approach.
27. Which of the following concepts
refers to "the recognized violation of
cultural norms"?
deviance
28. "Crime" differs from "deviance"
in that crime:
is a violation of norms enacted into
law.
29. Name three functions of
deviance noted by Emile Durkheim.
Responding to deviance clarifies
moral boundaries.
Deviance affirms cultural values and
norms.
Responding to deviance promotes
social unity.
30. The basic idea behind labeling
theory is that:
deviance arises not so much from
what people do as how others
respond to what they do.
31. What concept did Erving
Goffman use to refer to a powerful
and negative label that greatly
changes a person's self-concept and
social identity?
stigma
32. A hate crime is defined as
a criminal act motivated by racial or
other bias.
33. In legal terms, a crime is
composed of which two
components?
the act and criminal intent
34. Edwin Lemert described
"primary deviance" as
a passing episode of deviance that
has little effect on the person's selfconcept.
35. Social stratification refers to:
ranking categories of people in a
hierarchy.
36. A caste system is defined as:
social stratification based on
ascription or birth.
37. If you have a job that involves
manual labor, you are doing:
blue-collar work
38. Work involving mostly
mental activity is called:
white-collar work
39. Laura wears an expensive dress
to the party to impress her friends.
A sociologist might say she is
engaging in:
conspicuous consumption.
40. The idea that social inequality
benefits society is associated with
the:
structural-functional approach
41. The idea that social inequality is
harmful and divides society is
associated with the:
social-conflict approach
42. According to Karl Marx,
differences in wealth and power
between the capitalists and
proletarians necessarily lead to:
class conflict
43. Which concept refers to the
biological distinction between males
and females?
sex
44. One norm found everywhere is
the incest taboo, which refers to:
norms forbidding sexual relations or
marriage between certain relatives.
45. When did the sexual
revolution begin?
It began in 1920s and grew
quickly in the late 1960s.
46. The effect of the sexual
counterrevolution was:
to encourage people to limit their
number of sexual partners or, in
some cases, to abstain from sex
entirely.
47. The weight of evidence
indicates that sexual orientation is
rooted in:
human biology, although social
experience plays some role.
48. In global perspective,
prostitution is most common in:
poor nations, where women have
fewer economic opportunities.
49. Prostitution is regarded by
many people in the United States as
a:
victimless crime.
50. Which theoretical approach
points to the ways in which sexuality
is linked to social inequality?
the social-conflict approach
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Sociology I Final Review