CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION
(CMP)
Dr. P. Vijayakumar
CONCEPT OF CMP
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“Clean milk” – milk drawn from the udder of
healthy animals, which is collected in clean,
dry milking pail and free from extraneous
matter like dirt, dust, flies, hay, manure etc.”
Clean milk has a normal flavour with low
bacterial count and is safe for human
consumption.
CONCEPT OF CMP
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Milk from udder – normally sterile
Contains protein, lipid, lactose, minerals
etc.
Ideal medium for rapid proliferation of
harmful micro-organism
Needs to be protected from all possible
sources of contamination
Employment of hygienic practice at the time
of milking – important

CMP – beneficial to both producers and
consumers
Safe for human consumption
Better keeping quality
High commercial value
Protection against diseases like typhoid,
dysentry, diptheria, septic sore throat etc.
Helps to produce good quality dairy products
Transportation over long distances
SIGNIFICANCE OF CMP
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Milk production stagnant between 1947 and
1970
Annual milk production increased to 112
million MT (2010-11) from 17 million MT
(1950-51)
Growth rate – 5.5 % per annum
Projected milk production – 200-250 million
MT by 2020
India’s global participation in milk trade –
negligible
Exports of milk and milk products very low
FACTORS AFFECTING CMP
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Milk – source of protein and calcium
Milk – most easily perishable and
contaminated commodity
Milk should be stored/chilled immediately
after milking
Hygienic practice from milking to factory
Poor sanitation
Poor storage
High Bacterial Count
Improper
Handling
Infection/Diseases
Causes of high bacterial load in milk
Soil
Environment
Water
Feed and Fodder
Concentrate, Fodder,
Hay, Silage
Drinking Water
Milker’s Hygiene
Animal
Preparing of animal
for milking
Milk
Milking Pail
Bulk Tank
Chilling of Milk
Retail/Consumer
Milk Tanks
Milk Processing Plant
Source of contamination of milk

Internal factors

External factors
Udder infection – Mastitis
Foremilk – contains large no. of bacteria
Cow/animal’s body
Udder and teats
Milker – hygiene and habits
Method of milking
Milking Utensils
Milk Storage utensils
Feed and water
Milking environment
Contamination corrected at various levels
Animal management
Hygiene of milking equipments and utensils
Milker and milking practices
During storage and transport
Personal hygiene
MEASURES OF CMP
The following measures should be taken
care for the production of clean milk:
1. Animal Management at farm level
Feeding
Housing
Animal Health
2.Cleanliness of Milking equipments
3. Hygienic milking practices
4. Cooling
ANIMAL MANAGEMENT
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Milk from healthy udder – relatively free
from harmful bacteria
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High bacterial count reduces the keeping
quality of milk
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Animal management involves
feeding, housing and health
the
FEEDING
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Balanced feed with appropriate quantities of
green fodder straw and concentrates having
essential nutrients and minerals is important
Feed ingredients should be stored in moisturefree conditions
Feed and fodder should be free from industrial
and environmental contaminants, pesticides,
insecticides, fungicides, fumigants, pathogenic
agents, aflatoxins as well as heavy metals
FEEDING
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Good quality straw and supply of adequate
minerals and vitamins
Feeding should be made one hour before
milking
 During milking, non-dusty concentrate
can be provided to keep animals busy
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Silage and wet crop residues should not be
fed at milking place as it may impart foul
odour to the milk
HOUSING
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Animal shed - main sources of contamination
Protects animals against micro-organisms, people,
wind, rain, heat etc.
Mud, urine, faeces and feed residues should be
regularly removed from the shed
Shed should have proper drainage, sufficient
ventilation and lighting
In very wet areas, slaked lime – used for drying
Sufficient water facility should be available for
drinking as well as washing the shed and animal
HOUSING
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Shed : well-roofed, well ventilated, dry and
comfortable with adequate elevation
Appropriate arrangement for disposal of
animal waste (manure pit or biogas plant) and
left over feed & fodder
Protection from flies and insect which are
potential sources of contamination
Piggery and poultry farming should be
avoided near the animal premises
ANIMAL HEALTH
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Pre-requisite for CMP – healthy herd
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Routine examination of cattle for diseases like TB,
Brucellosis etc.
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Diseased animals should be kept separate
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Sanitary precautions to prevent and control
diseases should be adopted
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Using inducer drugs should be avoided
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Check for udder wounds and mastitis.
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Vaccination of animals against FMD, Anthrax, etc.
should be done regularly
CLEANLINESS OF MILKING
EQUIPMENTS AND UTENSILS
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Milking equipments : Milking pails,
milking machine, milk cans, milk
pipeline recorder, bulk, strainer, chiller,
Bulk tank and storage tank etc.
Residual milk in utensil – growth of
microorganisms
Proper cleaning removes germs and
dirt
CLEANLINESS OF MILKING
EQUIPMENTS AND UTENSILS
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Milk vessels should be cleaned before and after
each milking – rendering bacteria-free

Detergents/chemicals used for cleaning should
be non-injurious, non-toxic to health like Teepol
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Use of ash or mud not recommended
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Cleaned and sanitized vessels should be kept in
inverted position
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Milking pail - dome shaped top should be used
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Open buckets should not be used
HYGIENIC MILKING
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Key factors : Hygienic condition of storage and
transport equipments and storage temperature
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Some organism may enter milk during hand
milking and machine milking
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In addition, personal hygiene of the worker are
important
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Hygienic practices during milking contribute to
produce safe and suitable milk
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Floor sweeping just before milking should
be avoided
Milker’s Hygiene
Free from communicable diseases
Should wear clean clothes, nails trimmed
Should neither eat or spit anything
Before milking, milker should clean his
hands with soap, potable water and then
wipe with clean cloth or towel
Clean the udder and teats with luke warm
water and wipe with clean cloth or towel

The fore stripping should be collected in
separate utensil/cup and should be discarded to
avoid flies and insects
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After milking, teat should be dipped in antiseptic
solution to minimise risk of infection
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Wet milking (moistening hand in milk or water or
oil) is not recommended
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Milking should be completed within 6-8 mins
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Milk should be strained using a clean cloth or a
strainer. The cloth should be washed and dried
daily
COOLING
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Advantage of producing clean milk is lost if post
milking handling is not carefully done
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To preserve the keeping quality of milk, it should
be cooled as soon as possible to a temp. below
5°C in a refrigerator
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The sooner the milk is cooled after removal, the
better is the quality
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Bacterial growth is retarded by cooling the milk
within 2 hours of milking
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Delivery of milk to the factory or consumers
should be as frequent as possible
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CLEAN MILK PRODUCTION (CMP)

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