Trends in Biomass Power Generation in
Asia and Opportunities for Global
Equipment Suppliers
Renewable Energy World Asia
2- 4 November 2010, Marina Bay Sands, Singapore
Arul Joe Mathias B.E., M.Engg., MBA
Dr. Balasankari B.E., M.Engg., Ph.D
INTRODUCTION
• In the last 10 years:
– considerable change in biomass power generation
– Rise in multi-fuel plant designs (high cost and
demand for fuel)
– Improvised combustion technologies
– Several new approaches in power plant
implementation
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Trends in Biomass Power
Generation
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BIOMASS FUEL AVAILABILITY, PRICE AND ITS IMPACT
• Bagasse, palm shell, palm fibre, rice husk and
wood waste - commonly used fuels in Asia
• Recent Biomass Price in Asia has gone up to
60 USD/ton
• Use of unconventional fuels such as empty
fruit bunch, corn cob, cassava rhizome,
coffee husk, etc. are also increasing
– Forces the use of efficient multi-fuel
boilers
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BIOMASS FUEL AVAILABILITY, PRICE AND ITS IMPACT
• Even with multi-fuel boiler designs, fuel mix
scenario changes from year to year
• Advanced combustion systems are used to
tackle varying fuel mix scenarios
• Innovative and creative approaches are used to
reduce the initial investment cost and
operational cost
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BIOMASS COMBUSTION SYSTEMS IN ASIA
• Travelling grate systems and reciprocating step grate
systems are in high demand.
• Fluidised bed combustion systems are popular in few
countries
• CFBC: used rarely for small scale biomass plants
• Vibrating grate systems are tried with few plants, but
failed to gain popularity
• Cyclonic combustion systems: only few installations
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STEAM CYCLES IN ASIA
• One decade ago:
– most common steam cycle was in the range of 40 bar
and 440°C.
• At present:
– use of high pressure steam cycle to reduce fuel
consumption
– Steam pressure cycles of up to 110 bar and 510°C are
used
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NORMAL BIOMASS POWER PLANT CAPACITY
• Sugar sector: 15 MW to 40 MW
• Palm oil sector: 5 MW to 15 MW
• Rice sector: 5 MW to 10 MW
• Wood industries: 5 MW to 10 MW
• Multi-fuel fired projects: 5 MW to 20 MW
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TREND IN RICE HUSK POWER GENERATION
• Considerable reduction in the investment cost
• Common pressure cycle: 65 bar, 465 °C
• In multi-fuel boiler: up to 105 bar
• Ash sale price: as high as 400 USD/ton
• The key issue: Rice husk price
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TREND IN SUGAR COGENERATION
• After 1994: 67 bar, 490 oC systems
• After 2001: 87 bar, 515oC systems
• After 2007: 110 bar, 540oC systems
• Extraction-cum-condensing turbine
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TREND IN WOOD WASTE POWER GENERATION/COGENERATION
• Matured technology
• Along with wood chips - bark, saw dust and
other wood wastes are often used
• Demolition wood, tree trimmings are also
used
?
Sustainable supply……………………..
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POWER PLANT IN WATER SCARCE AREA
• For a 10 MW power plant : water requirement is
around 1,600 m3/day
• In many countries,
– difficult to implement power plant projects using
conventional water cooled plant design
– results in approval delays and creates risk of rejection
of approval
• Use of air cooled condenser, instead of water
cooled condenser and cooling tower system
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AIR COOLED CONDENSERS
When compared with water cooled condensers:
– reduction of around 80% water requirement
– overall plant efficiency is lower
– overall power plant investment cost is higher
– only recommended in places with water issues
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PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH
• Separate procurement and EPC
• Project implementation cost lower in separate
procurement
• In Asia the general trend is to go in for EPC approach
– to avoid dealing with the issues of warranty and other
implementation delays
• Knowledgeable developers capable of managing the
project implementation effectively prefer to go for separate
procurement
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FINANCING SITUATION
• Compared to corporate financing, project
financing is bit difficult to obtain
• Growing trend towards project financing
– Banks will ensure that all security arrangements
are in place by conducting proper due diligence,
before granting the loan
– Ensures projects are generally of low risk
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Opportunities for Global
Equipment Suppliers
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MARKET FOR BOILERS IN SUGAR MILLS
Sugar mills in Asia:
– Existing cogeneration system ranges from
21 bar and 340°C to 42 bar and 400°C
– Only some of them have implemented 67
bar and 490°C systems
– Wide potential for very high pressure
systems in the range of 87 bar and 510 °C
to 110 bar to 540 °C
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MARKET FOR BOILERS IN PALM OIL MILLS
• In the past 10 years, EFB is being used in boilers,
which is a difficult fuel
• Though
several
equipment
suppliers
have
implemented such projects in Thailand, Malaysia and
Indonesia, no one has succeeded 100% in this aspect
• Equipment suppliers who can bring in reliable and
proven combustion system can capture the wide
markets in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia
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MARKET FOR PALM WASTE POWER PLANT EQUIPMENTS
• 100% proven combustion technology for EFB
• Fuel preparation system for the use of EFB
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MARKET FOR BOILERS IN RICE MILLS
For boilers producing rice husk ash (RHA) of good
quality
– RHA is mainly used in the steel industry as an insulator
during the manufacture of high quality steel forgings.
– The price of RHA is as high as 400 USD/ton at the steel
plant gate level.
– RHA is used in cement industries as a substitute for
Portland cement.
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MARKET FOR BOILERS IN RICE MILLS
• Research work is also going on regarding silica chip
manufacture as the silica content of the ash is very
high.
• The density, unburnt carbon content and moisture
content of rice husk ash should be as low as
possible
Boiler suppliers who can guarantee high quality rice
husk ash are in demand in Asia
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MARKET FOR STEAM TURBINES
• Market for efficient high pressure extraction
condensing turbines with multiple extractions is
high in sugar and palm oil industries
• Rice mills have also increasingly started using the
extraction condensing turbines with single steam
extraction, mainly for paddy drying application.
• High pressure condensing turbines are also highly
in demand in the market.
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MARKET FOR POLLUTION CONTROL EQUIPMENT
• Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), bag house filters and
efficient multi cyclones are in demand in Asia.
• ESP performance over a long period of time is an issue
– due to various reasons including usage of different biomass
fuels
• ESP suppliers who can give longer performance
guarantee period with the usage of different biomass
fuels are in demand in the market.
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• For more details:
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• Contact:
[email protected]
[email protected]
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High pressure condensing turbines