John Fogden
Total Aviation Quality Ltd.


Intro
Aircare


Noise Abatement Code of Practice



‘Front-footing legislation’
‘It’s just about culture’
Noise
HAI Fly Neighbourly Program
 Recap

Assessment


Noise abatement training provided by TAQ
and Richard Rayward CEO Air Safaris on
behalf of AIA
Whilst not targeted at fixed wing aeroplanes,
elements of this presentation and associated
Fly Neighbourly Program are adopted by this
code in order to deliver the same benefits.



February 2011 Department of Conservation
announced that DOC will require all aircraft
concession holders and all aircraft operators
that want to work in the DOC Estate to be
AIRCARE™ Accredited by April 2012.
Extended to 1/01/13 (incl. Milford) (24/01/12)
New Applications: on application or by
1/01/13 (whichever comes 1st.)


DOC will achieve this by mandating in the
CMS reviews currently underway.
Extended concessions



The biggest threat to aircraft activities is poorly
written legislation being developed to protect
the environment.
The way the industry is reacting to that is to
develop the AIRCARE™ Program
The AIRCARE™ Program is an enabling
program.

The AIRCARE™ Accreditation Program
includes codes of practice about discharges
(Spraying, Topdressing & aerial poison drops)
engineering and Amenity Values (the Noise
Abatement Code)


SMS that sits above the codes requires that
operators are independently audited against
both the SMS and the codes.
To be awarded accreditation an operator has to
prove compliance with the relevant code(s)
every time they go to work.)
Compliance Flowchart
ENVIRONMENTAL
Code of Practice for Aircraft Operations
Amenity Values
 NOISE ABATEMENT


In accordance with the requirements to
preserve amenity values as described in the
RMA, aerial operators need to manage noise.
By following the principles detailed in this
code, that can be achieved.



This code forms part of the Environmental
Management System offered as part of the
AIRCARE SMS run by the Aviation Industry
Association of NZ.
It recognises the issues involved with the
operation of aircraft in and around noise
sensitive areas
Details a plan by which the aviation industry
and regulators can work together in order to
achieve the long term goal of limiting the noise
and environmental impact of aircraft


With a proactive approach the aviation
community can pre-empt legislation being
enforced upon the industry that could itself be
unworkable.
Does not address:


Aircraft
Noise measurement


Members of the aviation community are
invited to join this accreditation program that
both trains and measures pilots and operators
in ‘flying neighbourly’ and in noise abatement
methods.
The aviation community needs work with
regulators to identify measures that reduce the
impact of aircraft noise.

Amenity values


Means those natural or physical qualities and
characteristics of an area that contribute to people’s
appreciation of its pleasantness, aesthetic coherence, and
cultural and recreational attributes
Noise Sensitive Area
An area where the impact of adverse effects from noise
diminishes the amenity values of that area
 Excludes CBD but may include residential areas and
smaller towns between 1900 – 0700.


Populous Area

A collection of ten residences or more in an area less than
two hectares, or a gathering of more than 100 people.

The Resource Management Act 1991



empowers legislators to control elements of aircraft
operations e.g. noise as it impacts on amenity values.
Does not control overflight
The Civil Aviation Act 1990


empowers the CAA to control aircraft operations.
The Civil Aviation Act does not empower CAA to
have any control of aircraft noise. Notwithstanding
this, the majority of complaints that CAA fields are
noise related
Does not control noise

The Conservation Act 1987,


Specifically Part 3B Concessions Section 170 (2) says
that no activity will be carried out in a conservation
area unless authorized by a concession.
The National Parks Act 1980

Specifically Section 14 Wilderness Areas s14(2)(d)
This clause prohibits aircraft landing or hovering in
Wilderness Areas.

What has changed??

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
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
RMA 1991
CA Act 1990
Conservation Act 1987
Nat. Parks Act 1980
Tolerance has changed

What was considered normal or acceptable in years
gone by is no longer so.


Culture has to change
The measure of a pilot

Crashes
 Productivity
 Least breakages
 Most versatile / professional/ lowest insurance risk

What is needed now is both helicopter and
fixed wing operators and pilots who adapt the
quickest

Understanding the impact of noise on the
environment and on amenity values and how
that noise can be effectively managed is about:

Staying in business

Keeping your job

There are sounds that please us

And there are noises that disturb us

Not everyone likes the same types of noise


Irrespective of the sound /noise being
generated, the environment will dictate its
character.

F1 GP, Airshows, Jet ski carnivals

Churches, Nat. Parks, schools, hospitals, holiday
resorts, outdoor gatherings / concerts
More peaceful the environment the bigger the
impact


NOISE – CAUSE & REMEDIES
Fixed wing

Propeller (design & speeds) retrofitable
 Settings & sync
 Set RPM at lowest recommended setting in all flight
phases
 100 rpm difference in mid-range of prop setting will
raise or lower noise emission by 3 - 5 dB.
 High rpm very intrusive and increases at higher end of
prop rpm setting (2450 rpm upwards)
 2600 – 2700 rpm setting can double perceived sound at
ground level (Rayward)


Fixed wing (cont.)
Engine (turbines)
 Exhausts
retrofitable

Larger capacity small a/c
 Caravan, XL 750 / Cresco, Pilatus




Manoeuvering
Environment
Technique
CULTURE


NOISE – CAUSE & REMEDIES
Helicopter - Aerodynamic
 Main rotor & tail rotor
 construction, design & speed
 Interaction
 Engine (turbine)
 Exhaust & gearbox

Environment
 Temp, Humidity, terrain, distance, wind
 Technique, manoeuvring
 CULTURE

MD 600

Stuff them. Ignore them and they will go away

Get right up ‘em. Best form of defence is attack.


There’s always a couple of moaners. No one
else seems to have a problem.
We were operating here long before they came
along.



Wait ‘til they break a leg. Then they’ll be
pleased to see us.
We’ve got a job to do, so they might as well get
used to it.
Not much I can do about it.




Some more sensitive to noise than others
Noise inducted vibration & rattle
A/c noise irritating low frequency content
Helicopter noise more irritating than f/wing



Periodic impulsive character
Personal judgement, fear and negative attitude
Industry’s response to these concerns……….

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Confusion of legislation leads to unsatisfactory
results for complainants
Ignored or fobbed-off. Frustration
Concerns need to be listened to
Soon settle down when they realise they are
being heard
Nearly all will be satisfied when they see some
response to their concerns
For the purposes of this Code the word “shall” refers to
practices that are mandatory for compliance with the
Code and the word “should“ refers to practices that are
advised, recommended or are industry best practice.

Pilots

Attend & pass Fly Neighbourly training

Take all reasonable steps to minimise noise footprint

Comply with Code of Practice and company
procedures except:

Notify operator when conditions cannot be complied
with

To meet the requirements of this code pilots
shall complete the Fly Neighbourly training
program and pass an assessment set by the
AIA.


The term of this qualification shall be three years.
The Fly Neighbourly Guide upon which this
training is based is included as Appendix 1.




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Pilots shall take all reasonable steps to
minimize their noise footprint. In flight, pilots
should observe the following noise abatement
procedures:
Avoid noise-sensitive areas where possible
Follow high ambient noise routes
Maintain an altitude as high as possible
Fly normal cruising speed or slower
Avoid sharp manoeuvres



use steep takeoff and descent profiles
(helicopters only) – Vy -5kts
Operate (f/wing)propellers at the low end of
the propeller recommended RPM operating
range for all phases of the flight.
Vary the route, repetition contributes to
annoyance.

For low level operations – use techniques that
minimise the noise footprint:




operating RPM (rotor or prop).
keeping high ground or shelter belts between flight
tracks and any nearby residence
hours of operation and timing of operation.
Where company (or User Group) operating
areas or transit routes are developed, confine
flights to those places.

Comply with the Code of Practice except
where they would conflict with:
Flight safety, or
 C A Rules, or ATC clearances or instructions, or
 Passenger comfort.
 A/c limitations


Pilots unable to comply with company Policy
or guidelines in respect to noise abatement
shall document the event and notify the
operator using an Event Notification form.

Operators
Policy on noise minimisation and plan operations
accordingly
 Emphasise awareness of noise sensitive areas
 Consider fleet , a/c type selection
 Maintain a noise complaints register
 Ensure staff attendance at FN courses
 Ensure pilot’s ongoing awareness and
understanding of noise minimisation


Operators (cont.)



Include FN in Management Review Meetings
Promote customer education
Maintain active participation in Airspace User
Groups

To meet the requirements of this code
operators shall:

Maintain a policy on noise minimisation that shall be
promoted to all staff.

This policy shall reflect the operator’s intent to
reduce the amount of noise created by aircraft and
other equipment. ????


The policy will identify current and anticipated
areas of noise concern.

To meet the requirements of this code
operators shall:




Plan flight ops in accordance with noise abatement
procedures to minimize the impact of aircraft
movements giving consideration to:
a/c type selected
Time of day or week to be least obtrusive.
In sensitive areas, develop the location of operational
areas and transit routes in consultation with the any
relevant parties or local authorities.

To meet the requirements of this code
operators shall:


Assist flight crews and operations personnel to
develop responsible mission profiles without
infringing on operational reality, without conflicting
with CARs, ATC instructions, or a/c operating
limitations.
These guidelines shall emphasize awareness of
sensitive routes and landing areas.

To meet the requirements of this code
operators shall:


For low level operations near populous areas,
consider the fleet and select an aircraft type that has
the least intrusive noise footprint.

Maintain a register of noise complaints including:
 the name and address of the complainant,
 location of the concern and
 the date and time to which the event refers.
 corrective and preventative actions undertaken

Evaluate and discuss with pilot concerned.
 Review procedures

To meet the requirements of this code
operators shall ensure all relevant staff:

attend the Fly Neighbourly training course

pass an assessment on the noise abatement
procedures detailed in that course.

undergo recurrent training and assessment every
three years.

Operators shall ensure pilots awareness and
understanding of the following is assessed during
routine company flight checks (FCCC, Ag Comp.)

Contents and updates of manufacturers published noise
abatement information (Flt. Manual Supps)

Documented company noise abatement policies and
procedures

Operational noise minimisation techniques

To meet the requirements of this code
operators shall:

As part of regular Management Review Meetings
(required under the AIRCARE Environmental
Management System), ensure that the noise
minimisation policy is considered to ensure that it is
still relevant in respect to any changing conditions or
legislation and that it is revised when required.

To meet the requirements of this code
operators shall:

Educate customers about noise abatement
 prevent or minimize conflicts between their
expectations and company policy.

Where a User Group has been established maintain
membership and take an active part in its activities.

Strive for continuous improvement .

It is recommended that operators adopting this
code of practice should:



Where possible, when operations below 500ft AGL
are anticipated, arrange notification to all affected
parties near the proposed flight path.
Promote the safety record and the benefits of aircraft
use to improve public acceptance of aircraft.
Develop good working relations with the media
presenting favourable aircraft related media
coverage of events, achievements and outcomes
including Fly Neighbourly seminars.

It is recommended that operators adopting this
code of practice should:

Engage in public relations to develop awareness of the
the company’s Fly Neighbourly Program through
attendance at meetings of local government, government
agencies, service clubs and environmental groups.

Utilise demonstrations and press conferences covering
such capabilities as fire fighting, emergency medical
evacuation, search and rescue and the benefits of aircraft
transportation to the general public.

Land-owners Administrators

Notify visitors / neighbour etc. who might be
affected


When aircraft operations are planned over
sensitive areas, it is the responsibility of the
Land Owner/Administrator to notify people
who could be adversely affected by the aircraft
noise.
Doing this will reduce the element of surprise
and disappointment that often lead to
frustration for visitors and
owners/administrators alike.
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
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Examples:
Restaurant / lodge owners - neighbours
Visitors to the DOC Estate – a/c noise
Visitors to National – a/c noise and track / hut
work
Landowners/Administrators should work
with aircraft operators to identify flight routes
that will cause the minimum of noise nuisance.


Acceptance of aircraft activities is, in general,
poor.
Engender acceptance. Provide media with :

valid and favourable aviation related information
(e.g. press releases - good news stories)
 SAR ops, local police support, fire fighting

Get involved with Govt agencies –


Influence their thinking and decisions
Partner with them to promote your services


Publicise F/N seminars and initiatives
Front-foot it with:


Changes to operational practices
Establishing a new base
 Consider safety, operational and environmental issues
 Develop a public acceptance program


Programs to prevent or resolve complaints
Use the media to project positive relations

Utilise local, national and trade media
 Av News, Pac Wings, Kiwi Flyer etc.

Fly Neighbourly Committee est. 1981


Matt Zucarro HAI Pres.
www.rotor.com
Fly Neighbourly Guide
 Fly Neighbourly Pamphlet
 Responding to community concerns
 Sample complaint forms
 Training CD and DVD


Introduction



Recognise impact operations have on noise
Recognising the risks in not addressing noise
concerns
Sources of helicopter noise


Recognise the main noise generators on a helicopter
Recognise which noise source dominates each flight
regime

Other factors influencing noise




The effect of distance on sound
The effect of temp, humidity and wind on sound
The effect of terrain on sound
What manufacturers are doing


Introduction to what steps manufacturers are
taking to reduce helicopter noise
Understanding new design features being
examined for future noise reduction

The pilots role in noise abatement
Recognise the need for noise abatement
 Recognise the pilot attitude factors in noise
abatement
 General guidelines for reducing helicopter noise


Specific noise abatement procedures


Recognise the need for general noise abatement
procedures
Noise abatement procedures specific to your
make and model of helicopter

http://www.youtube.com/embed/8ljxyDtCs
aM



Good noise - bad noise
Aircraft make lots of it.
Multiple noise sources from helicopter:

Rotational (main & tail rotors)
 Directional downwards & forward

Impulsive (BVI, TRI, HSI)
 Most obtrusive
 Most easily remedied

Broadband
 Less obtrusive except start-up, hover

Distance


Temperature


Higher humidity – greater noise
Wind


Lower temp= greater noise
Humidity


Double distance (or altitude) = 5-6 db noise
reduction = halved perceived noise
Downwind – greater noise
Terrain

Main rotor speed




Design –
blade structure,
mechanics
Anti torque design



Blade speed,
blade spacing
Alternatives (notar)




Avoid noise sensitive areas
Fly higher – fly slower over sensitive areas
Reduce rrpm or prop rpm over sensitive areas
Modify flight profiles




Hover – climb – en-route –descent profiles
Hover turns
Avoid BVI slap regions
Situational (environmental)awareness

Individual aircraft operating techniques for
noise mitigation



Be familiar with the ones you operate and put them
into practice
Pro-active liaison with community
Be responsive to, record, and correct
community concerns and perceptions



Be sure to complete name and other details
Closed book
Tick the option(s) that is correct





Some questions may have more than one correct
option
Rotary pilot questions /f/wing pilot questions
Review answers
Assessment by AIA
Individual certificates issued by mail
Download

NOISE - Aviation Industry Association of NZ (Inc)