Reducing CO2 from transport:
What is happening in Europe?
Vicenç Pedret Cuscó
European Commission
Transunion
Brussels, 3 November
2011
Transport GHG emissions between 1990 and 2006
Transport sector

Emission from transport accounts for 19%-24% of overall EU GHG

Emissions increased of + 1.9% per year corresponding to + 35.8%
Road transport only

Emission from road transport accounts from 71% of overall transport
GHG

Emissions increased of + 1.6% per year meaning two thirds of the
increase in emissions from the transport sector
Source: EEA
Road trasport
The share of emissions among road transport modes is:

Passenger cars account for about 70%

Light commercial vehicles (vans) account for about 10%

Heavy duty vehicles (trucks) account for about 30%
100%
90%
80%
CO2 (Mt)
70%
bus and coach
heavy duty vehicle
light duty vehicle
motorcycle
moped
medium/big car
small car
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
year
1995
2000
2005
Year
2010
2015
EU27 Reference Scenario
300
Index (1990=100)
GDP
250
200
Freight
transport
150
100
Passenger
transport
50
Population
0
1990
2010
2030
Source: PRIMES modeling for EC’s Impact Assessments
2050
Developments in EU transport
GHG emissions
Decomposition of Transport CO2 Emissions
2.0%
average annual % change
1.98%
1.85%
1.5%
1.29%
1.0%
0.85%
0.5%
0.61%
0.25%
0.0%
-0.29%
-0.5%
-0.66%
-0.71%
-1.0%
1990 >> 2000
CO2
Activity
Modal Choice
2000 >> 2010
Energy Intensity
Carbon Intensity
Transport
COCO
decomposition
Transport
2 emissions
2 Emissions - Decomposition
average annual percent change
2%
decarbonisation
reference
1%
0%
-1%
-2%
-3%
CO2 emissions
Activity
Modal Share
Energy Efficiency
Fuel Choice
-4%
-5%
-6%
2010>2030
2030>2050
Source: PRIMES modeling for EC’s Impact Assessments
2010>2030
2030>2050
European CO2 strategy on road transport
COM(95)689

Pillar 1:
volontary agreements with car manufacturers in 1998/9 to reach 140 g/km within 10
year failed. Regulation (EC) 443/2009 now sets a target of 130 g/km by 2015 and
95 g/km by 2020.

Pillar 2:
Taxation of vehicles proportional to emission. Commissione proposal
COM(2005)261 stopped ad the council since 2005 as unanimity is required.

Pillar 3:
Consumer Information (Labelling Directive 1999/94)
Historical fleet CO2 emissions performance and
current or proposed standards
US-LDV
Grams CO2 per kilometer, normalized to NEDC
270
Solid dots and lines: historical performance
Solid dots and dashed lines: enacted targets
Solid dots and dotted lines: proposed targets
Hollow dots and dotted lines: unannounced proposal
250
CaliforniaLDV
Canada-LDV
EU
230
Japan
210
China
S. Korea
190
Australia
170
150
130
China 2020: 117
110
US 2025:107
Japan 2020: 105
90
2000
EU 2020: 95
2005
2010
2015
2020
[1] China's target reflects gasoline fleet scenario. If including other fuel types, the target will be lower.
[2] US and Canada light-duty vehicles include light-commercial vehicles.
2025
New car CO2 emissions/km
Limit value curve in Regulation 443/2009
Limit value curve in Regulation 443/2009
300
Porsche
t
2006 trendline
average mass
250
average CO2 [g/km]
Subaru
Mitsubishi
GM
200
BMW
Mazda
Daimler
Chrysler
Nissan
Suzuki
Toyota
160
Volkswagen
150
Hyundai
Fiat
PSA
100
1000
1100
Renault
1200
Honda
1300
Ford
1400
average mass [kg]
1500
1600
1700
Regulation on cars and vans: current status
 At present the Commission is:

Defining the implementing rules for the Regulation, in particular the
content and evaluation procedure for derogations and eco-innovation

Discussing with the Council and Parliament on the features of the Vans
proposal
 Derogation: small volume manufacturers can apply for an ad-hoc target
considering their market segment and potential for reduction
 Eco-innovations: technologies not captured by the CO2 measurement
procedure for cars can receive credits. Applications for each technology
to be evaluated by the Commission.
 Vans: the proposal, as finally approved, has the same features of the Cars
proposal with a target of 175 g/km in 2017 and 147 g/km in 2020.
Heavy Duty Vehicles state of play
 28% of all road sources
 5% of total EU GHG emissions
 Bigger than international shipping and aviation
 Continues to grow
 Rising interest by policy makers in US and Japan
 Interest by the EU industry in establishing a global fuel
efficiency certification method
Heavy Duty Vehicles activities in the EU
 Gathering information

Launched a contract finishing in early 2011 gathering data on
HDV market structure and explore technology & policy options
 Certification method

Currently there is no standard way to assess the emission of
HDV for whole truck. Engine emission only are measured
neglecting the emissions due to aerodynamic drug and rolling
resistance.

Launched a contract finishing in early 2012 for proposing and
testing a method to measure CO2 emissions of whole tracks,
single tractors and trailers.
Pillar 3 - Labelling Directive 1999/94/EC
 The purpose of the Directive is
“to ensure that information relating to the fuel economy and CO2 emissions of new
passenger cars offered for sale or lease in the Community is made available to consumers in
order to enable consumers to make an informed choice.”
 The Directive contains four different provisions.

A poster or display, showing the fuel consumption data and CO2 emissions of all car
models displayed at a point of sale

A label displayed near each passenger car model at the point of sale

A guide on fuel economy and CO2 emissions

All promotional literature has to contain fuel consumption and specific CO2 emissions
data of the car models to which it refers (i.e. all printed matter including technical
manuals, brochures, advertisements in newspapers, magazines and trade press
and posters)
Pillar 3 - Labelling Directive 1999/94/EC
 Confusing information is prohibited
 Member States shall :

ensure information on CO2 and fuel consumption is available

co-operate with car manufacturers

report on the effectiveness of the Directive
Tractor Aerodynamics
No sun visor and
no trap door on
the roof
MOBILE SPOILER
(inflatable solution)
to close the GAP
cab-semitrailer
In combination with a
dedicated surface on
the semitrailer
Optimized
A-pillar cover
Chassis REAR CLOSURE
(stylistic add-on with new
lights)
Optimized fix dam
SIDESKIRTS
Trailer Aerodynamics
Requires changes of legal requirements
Adaptor for cab
inflatable spoiler
Optimized FLOOR
Complete SIDESKIRTS
with AIR INTAKE
REAR
MOBILE
SPOILER
(inflatable solution)
REAR DIFFUSER
to guide the flow
Semi-Trailer Aerodynamics
Transport volume
No specific EU policy objective on traffic volume.
 Actions mainly at Member State level
 May be mainly driven by other local concerns such as noise, air quality,
landscape, e.g:

Low emissions zones – see www.lowemissionzones.eu

Sectoral lorry ban – Austria http://www.tirol.gv.at/themen/umwelt/luft/nachtfahrverbot/

Congestion charges – London, Stockholm
 Promotion of alternatives to road freight

Rolling road

Incentive programmes eg “Marco Polo” http://ec.europa.eu/transport/marcopolo/
Economic Instruments
Internalisation of external costs an EU policy objective.

Eurovignette sets framework for HDV road user charges.



Latest revision permits some charging of external costs
Road user charges in Member States

German HDV charges on main road network

Plans for HDV charges on main road network in France

Netherlands abandoned intended road charging system

Toll motorways in many countries
Congestion charging

Introduced in London and Stockholm

Approx 15% reduction in traffic

Public support
Conclusions
 Wide range of policies enacted by EU to manage transport GHG
emissions.
 Most recently implemented so too early to draw conclusions on
their impact.
 Most analysis suggests further policy action needed to reduce
emissions in line with EU goals.
 Further work underway in a number of areas e.g. shipping and
HDV.
Grazie per la vostra attenzione
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/co2/co2_home.htm
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Presentation Vincenç Cusco Transunion