By Neima
Copyright © 2011 CCAA Project
Research Subject
Analysis of the Environment Water Supply
System and Sanitation
1.1 Introduction
Water is the most endangered natural resource in this
century, either by lack of human care for its
preservation, or for its waste in its various forms of
exploitation and use.
The PNCDA – National Programme for Water Waste
Combat, defines that in the Public system, water loss is
considered to be the volume of water not accounted for,
which includes both physical loss, as the portion not
consumed (originated from leaks in the system
beginning from capture point up to utilization terminals
as well as excessive unnecessary consumption), and
non-physical loss as non-registered consumed water
(resulting from illegal or non-registered connections
that lead to loss of billing)
This research project in “Water Supply Systems”,
is intended to assess the number of houses that
have access to potable water, sanitation and
how is the maintenance of these services done
as in terms of hygiene and care required with
black waters caused by rain, identify the leaking
points of origin in the system is the reason to
be of this research project carried out in the
Municipal District of KaMaxaquene in Maputo
city. Thus, the need to inform, sensitize, build
and strengthen the capacity of the
communities, relevant actor involved in in local
development to respond to these challenges by
exploring and reevaluating the sustainability of
the strategies and policies in place.
1.3 Objectives
The project aims in analyzing the water supply system
and environmental sanitation in neighborhood of
Maxaquene “A.
Specific objectives
Describe the process of distribution of the water in
the neighborhood of Maxaquene “A”;
Assess the impact of the difficulties in accessing
potable water;
Identify the main points of water loss and respective
causes and
Assess the existing conditions to minimize black
1.2 Assertion of the Problem
In the Municipal District of KaMaxaqueni,
particularly in the neighbourhoods of Maxaquene
“A” is composed by poor communities with a
distinct socioeconomic vulnerable characteristic
where the conditions of water supply are very
precarious. What are the difficulties in
operationalizing the service in many water supply
systems in Maputo?
1.4 Justification
The research area limit of this project in the District
of KaMaxaqueni, specifically the neighborhood of
Maxaquene “A” for being affected by a variety of
environmental problems, resulting from extreme
(rain, wind that not only modify the landscape of
the area, but the leaving conditions as well).
How? When rain falls, because the neighborhood
has a low slope landscape with agglomerated
houses, most of the area becomes flooded with
black waters, which are propitious for the
proliferation of illness causing vectors, affecting
mostly the children that due to the absence of
playgrounds, gather to play around the puddles,
waste and drain. Additionnaly the existence of a
underground or on the surface area that present
several breaking points letting the water leak
naturally, enhancing the fact that some of these
breaking points are cut out by individuals that for
different reasons seek for water.
Considering these aspects and safeguard the
environmental health, quality of the water
distribution services for human consumption, it is
important to launch a research study in control and
maintenance of the services rendered, optimizing
1.5 Research Question
Considering the different environmental impacts
exposed in the city of Maputo, what are the
positive aspect under this problem and how to
contribuite to improve the access of potable
water in these city?
What are the measures or strategies adopted by
the Government to mitigate the problems
inherent from the lack of water in the city of
What are the strategic plans implemented by the
Mozambican Government in the negotiations
taken during the process of distribution of water
and prevention of human health related to water?
What activities are being implemented in order to
2 Local context
2.1 Geographical position
The Municipal District Ka Maxaqueni, city of Maputo
is situated in middle of 3 districts. It shares its
North boarder with the Municipal District KaMavota,
through the Av. of the FPLM, the South boarder with
the Municipal District of Kamfumo, in the Av.
Marein Ngouambi and Joaquin Chissano, the West
border with Municipal District KaChamankulo, in
the Av. of Angola and East boarder with Municipal
District KaMpfumo, through the Av. Marginal.
approximately 223.688; the neighborhood of
habitants, of which 11,074 are men and 11,659 are
women. (III RGPH, 2007). It is important to mention
that the studying area boarders are the Municipal
quarter of Mavalane “B”in the North, Municipal
quarter of Malhangalene in the South, Municipal
quarter of Urbanização in the West and Municipal
quarter of Maxaquene “B” in the East side.
3. Methodology
This research is based on the quantitative model
that will be used in the process of collecting and
interpreting numerical data and qualitative, when
seeking perception and understanding about the
general nature of a certain question, thus
interpreting the observed phenomenon, where the
researcher try to understand the behavior and
attitude like for example cutting out water pipes
that result in non-registered consumption of water
and consequently a loss of billing. The loss of water
during the capitation process, the contamination of
the water table “eutrophication” is lead mainly by
human intervention in its biotic environment.
3.1. Research Approach
The bibliographic research will be fundamentally
through books and magazines aiming to place the
researcher informed on past events, thus draw a
theory about the subject(PADUA, 2004);
Documental analysis, that consist in reports, archives
and other publications about the subject;
Action research that is a typical social research
approach with empiric base, conceived and carried
out in relation to an action or resolution of a
collective problem, in which the representative
participants are involved in a cooperative and
participative manner (THIOLLENT, 1986);
Internet research
4. Population and Sample
4.1. Population
The research presents as its population universe, all
residents of the Municipal District KaMaxaquene,
and has as target group the young and old
habitants of Maxaquene “A” quarter because they
are directly affected, vulnerable, exposed to
extreme events, strong and intelligent. Thus
promote the readjustment of consciences and
capacities spreading throughout the speech of a
sustainable development.
4.1.1 Sample
The population of the Municipal District of
KaMaxaqueni, quarter “A” that is composed for 60
blocks, where each block has 40 houses
approximately. We will work with a part of the block
56, 53, 54 being target of interview only young and
adult residents from 10 houses per block since
these populations are exposed to environment
problems related to water and sanitation. Criteria for selection of sample
The presentation of project to the legal Secretary
authority of the quarter and through the
commentaries to adjust some unidentified points;
Through the inquiries identify the existent level of
knowledge among the population relatively to
sanitation of the environment.
Instrument of data collection
Interview and
Direct observation made during the interview.
5 Expected results
Consciousness of the target group about rational
management of water;
Aquire basic knowledge about mitigation and
adaptation mechanism;
Greater involvement and unification of the
community in the resolution of problems that
affect them;
Sustainable use of hydric resources;
Less waste of water during the process of
New policies that respond to the problems
related to puddle waters, and consequently less
Less ignorance in relation to small issues, but
with greater consequences;
Support the interaction and dynamic information
system in order to strengthen their own empiric
6 Appendix
Figure 1 and 2: Water pipes breaking points, in one
of the streets of block 58.
Figure 3 and 4: Children playing close to water
puddles with residual waters from rain
5 Modification of the landscape, trying to gain the
life in precarious situations
Figure 6: Illegaly breached pipes to take off water
for the domestic consumption
6. Bibliographic References
UNESCO, 2005. UN Decade of education for sustainable
Development. International implementation Scheme (draft).
2005-2014: 53pp.
SCHMIDT, L. et all, 2006. Década das nações unidas da
educação para o desenvolvimento sustentável, Contributo
para a sua dinâmica em Portugal. Comissão nacional de
UNESCO. 36pp. 2005-2014;
DUARTE, Marcos; Uma visão sobre formas de pesquisas, São
Paulo editora, 2000.
BERNARDO, L. Di.1993.Método e Ténica de Ttratamento de
Água, editora Rio de Janeiro.
Jornal a-verdade, Sem água não há Vida , 8 de Julho de 2011.
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Environment, Water and Sanitation Project