Step one in developing a food defense plan
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Production Agriculture
 Supplies
 Transportation
 Auctions
 Feedlots
-Farm

Food Processing
 Supplies
 Employees
 Bulk Mixing
 Bulk Storage
 Water supply

Retail Food Sales
 Supplies
 Employees
 Buffet Service Areas
 Farmer’s Market
 Fresh Produce

Food Defense focuses on protecting the food
supply from intentional contamination.

Food Safety (HACCP) and Biosecurity focus
on protecting the food supply from
unintentional contamination. They help
with, but are not a substitute for food
defense.
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Disgruntled employee/former employee

Contract or temporary employee

Members of extremist groups

Truck driver

Affiliate of a competing facility

Visitor to facility
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Biological Agents:
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Chemical Agents:

Radiological Agents: Injure externally
Injure by causing
disease, or producing toxin.
Injure through toxicity
to biological systems, or chemical burns to
tissue.
(radiation burns) or internally (organ damage).

Incubation period/delayed effect

Highly effective

History of use

Available (easily produced in adequate
quantity)

Low traceability
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1973 Fire retardant (PBB) accidentally mixed
into feed rations for cattle.
Over a year later sickness in animals, and
humans is linked to PBBs.
Cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, and
contaminated commodities are destroyed
and buried.
97% of humans living in Michigan during that
time period have PBBs in their system.
Consider how a chemical might be
“delivered” as an intentional contaminant:

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
Directly added during production process
Added to ingredients at the supplier level
Indirect addition during the production
process(ex. Cleaning supplies or pesticides,
packaging materials)
Consider how a disease might be
“delivered” as an intentional contaminant:

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Aerosol (airborn)
Directs contact (including reproductive)
Fomite (contaminated object)
Oral (feed or water)
Vector-borne (insect transmission)
Zoonotic (transmission between humans and
animals)
Consider how a microbiological agent
might be “delivered” as an intentional
contaminant:


Directly added to finished product
Indirect addition to environment or finished
product (ex. Listeria)

Labeled map of facility

Written operational procedures

Workforce procedures

University extension personnel

Law enforcement

Insurance Agent

USDA – Pre-harvest Security Guide

USDA/Food Safety and Inspection Service –
Developing a Food Defense Plan for Meat
and Poultry Slaughter and Processing Plants

Food and Drug Administration – Guidance for
Industry, Food Producers, Processers, and
Transporters: Food Security Preventative
Measures Guidance
1.
Is your outside perimeter secure?
2.
Is access within your operation limited?
3.
Are your processes secure?
4.
Is your shipping and receiving secure?
5.
Do you have an inventory system for stored
materials?
6.
Is access to your water supply limited?
7.
Is mail opened away from sensitive areas?
8.
Do you have screening and training
procedures for your workforce?
9.
Is access to sensitive areas limited?
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Family owned auction facility with sales on
Monday and Wednesday.
Restaurant on premises open Monday
through Saturday from 6:00 am to 2:00 pm.
Located at the corner of two highways and
has a perimeter fence.
8 permanent and 12 part time employees.

Arena can seat 300 people.

Restaurant can seat 75 people.

Can accommodate up to 5,000 animals.

Security cameras are located inside the
pavilion but not in the pens.

Restrooms are shared with arena and
restaurant.
2
4’
24’
Completed By: Mike R. O’Phone
Vulnerability Assessment
Worksheet
Vulnerability Questions
1.
Is your outside perimeter secure?
2.
Is access within your operation limited?
3.
Are your processes or procedures secure?
4.
Is your shipping and receiving secure?
5.
Do you have an inventory system for stored materials?
6.
Is access to your water supply limited?
7.
Is mail opened away from sensitive areas?
8.
Do you have screening and training procedures for your workforce?
9.
Is access to sensitive areas limited?
Date: 5-19-09
Y
N
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N/A
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The Farm-to-Table Food Supply Chain is Vulnerable