Catalysing Ocean
Finance:
The GloBallast
Case Study
Andrew Hudson
Head, UNDP Water & Ocean Governance Pgm
& Principal Technical Advisor, Int’l Waters,
UNDP-GEF
Catalysing Ocean Finance – Key Messages
• Most ocean threats – hypoxia, acidification, habitat loss,
ocean warming, invasive aquatic species – accelerating
• All are due to policy & market failures; for ship invasives is
lack of internalizing cost of ‘clean’ ballast water in ship
operations
• Suite of (3) methodologies have proven effective at achieving
local, national, regional and global ocean governance reforms
• Modest sums public finance (GEF$) can create enabling policy
environment which can catalyse sizeable sums public & private
finance and transform entire ocean sectors towards
sustainability
• Opportunity in late 1990’s to build on and strengthen
international efforts on ballast water already underway
through IMO
Catalysing Ocean Finance Case Studies
Case Study
Methodology/A
pproach
GEF
Grants
($ m.)
Catalysed
Public &
Private
Finance
($ m.)
Catalytic
Ocean
Finance
Ratio
Result
Danube/Black
Sea basin
TDA/SAP
51.9
2,980
57:1 Reduced nutrient loads, reversal
of Black Sea hypoxic area
Yellow Sea LME
TDA/SAP
14.744
10,860
Rio de la Plata
TDA/SAP
/Maritime Front
9.31
2,620
281:1 Significant reductions in sewage,
nutrient, industrial pollution
loads to RPMF
E. Asian Seas
/PEMSEA
ICM
36.1
10,000
277:1 11% of East Asian coastline under
ICM (vs. ~0% baseline); 20%
target for 2015
W/C Pacific
Fisheries
Build on regional
legal framework
15.1
3,214
GloBallast
Build on global
legal framework
14
35,000
737:1 30% reduction fishing capacity,
10% reduction nutrient
discharges every 5 years
222:1 Moving 1/3 world’s tuna fishery
towards sustainability
2,500:1 New global convention on ship
BW; significant reductions in
invasive species introductions
Generic Approach to building on
global and regional legal frameworks
GloBallast Project Strategy
Policy Development
•
Principles
•
Detailed Policy and NBWMS
Review (Legislations,
Policies and institutional
Arrangements)
Capacity Building
Global/regional harmony
Models/guidelines
Knowledge sharing
Technology solutions
Implementation
Reform Phase
•
Legislative Reform
•
Institutional Rationalisation
GloBallast – Catalysing a Global
Convention on Ship Ballast Water
New opportunities to further
catalyse shipping sector
transformation towards
sustainability
Shipping energy efficiency standards
Approach
• Tools, methodologies,
standards, guidelines to
promote uptake IMO EE
guidelines
– Ship Management
Plans (SEEMP)
– Ship Design Standards
(EEDI)
– Facilitate PS R&D
Costs/Benefits/Catalysis
• Public Cost: $10-20
million
• Benefits and avoided
costs:
– Climate impacts $19
billion/yr (2050)
– Fuel savings $90$310/billion/yr (2030)
• Catalysed Finance: many
billions $
Ship Hull Fouling – Invasive Species Vector
Approach
• Support convention
negotiations &
enhanced nat’l/reg’l
implementation capacity
• Tools, methodologies,
standards, guidelines
• Facilitate private sector
technology R&D
Costs/Benefits/Catalysis
• Public costs: $10 million
• Benefits/avoided costs:
$10-90 billion/yr
• Catalysed Finance:
$10-30 billion?
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Catalysing Ocean Finance