September 22-23, 2011
International Workshop
PPP Models and Technological Solutions
for Sewage and Waste Management
Model Projects – Suggested Approach
Way Forward?
by
IIT
Bombay
IIT
Delhi
IIT
Guwahati
IIT
Kanpur
&
IIT
Kharagpur
IIT
Madras
IIT
Roorkee
September 22-23, 2011
International Workshop
PPP Models and Technological Solutions
for Sewage and Waste Management
Model Projects
1. Cluster of Pulp and Paper Industries in
Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh
2. Tannery Effluents and Sewage Treatment in
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
3. Sewage Treatment in Patna, Bihar
4. Sewage Treatment in Kolkata, West Bengal
5. Distillery Industries in Ganga Basin
Ganga Basin
Drainage Area of the Ganga River Covering 11 States in India
(AIWFS Data)
Uttarkashi
Rishikesh
Haridwar
Garh
Mukteshwar
Delhi
Lucknow
Haryana
Mathura
UP
Agra
Kanpur
Rajasthan
Bihar
Allahabad
Banaras
Patna
Madya Pradesh
West Bengal
DBFO Model for STPs
Central
Governm
ent
State
Governm
ent
ULBs
Public
Service
Provider
/
Operator
DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential
Components
• The service provider/operator builds, and then maintains and operates the
facility for the contract period after commissioning.
• Responsibility for the arrangement of uninterrupted power supply for the
facility is with the service provider/operator.
• The service provider/operator and ULB will have joint rights (as stipulated
in the contract) for the commercial exploitation of the products, i.e., treated
water, sludge and sludge-derived products generated through sewage
treatment. A special purpose vehicle (SPV) may be set up for this purpose
by the service provider/operator and ULB using the PPP model.
• Any treated sewage, sludge, etc. discharged from the sewage treatment
facility during the contract period to be disposed of by the service
provider/operator in a safe manner and as per provisions of the contract.
DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential
Components
• The facility reverts back to the ULB after the end of the contract period
unless the contract duration is extended.
• Any liabilities arising out of site contamination during the construction
period and contract period for operation of the facilities by the service
provider/operator lie with the service provider/operator, even after
conclusion of the contract period.
• The facility reverts back to the ULB after the end of the contract period
unless the contract duration is extended.
• Any liabilities arising out of site contamination during the construction
period and contract period for operation of the facilities by the service
provider/operator lie with the service provider/operator, even after
conclusion of the contract period.
DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential
Components
 In this model, the income to the service provider/operator will be from two
sources:
▫ Payment made to the service provider/operator in the form of annuities. The
expected amount of annual payments (for each year of operation after
commissioning) will be clearly specified in the contract. However, the actual
annual payments shall be linked to the quantity of treated sewage (of specified
quality) produced by the service provider/operator in that year.
▫ Profit (if any), from commercial exploitation of resources generated through
sewage treatment, i.e., sale of treated water, sludge and sludge-derived products,
as per provisions specified in the contract.
 In return, the service provider/operator is expected to invest the entire
funds required for initial creation of the sewage pumping and treatment
infrastructure as per the approved DPR and also take care of operation and
maintenance of the facility through the operation and maintenance contract
period.
DBFO Model for Industry
Central
Pollution
control
Board
State
Pollution
Control
Board
Industry
Industry
Associati
on
(Compan
y Ltd)
Service
Provider
/
Operator
DBFO Model for Industry Clusters/Groups
• Most of the ETPs perform much below the expected level
and most of the times effluent discharge norms are
violated.
• Lack of knowledge and expertise to manage the ETPs
and lack of resources and man power for enforcing the
regulations and taking actions have been cited for poor
performance.
• In several instances causes beyond technical and
financial are responsible for unabated pollution of rivers.
DBFO Model for Industry Clusters/Groups
• It is recommended that ETPs are planned on DBFO model with
third party involvement as a company floated by the Association of
Industries. The ETPs will be in the premises of the industry. Land
for the ETP is to be provided by the industry.
• The company will be responsible for managing the effluent recycling
plants through service provider/operator using DBFO model and
will receive funds in the beginning of the year from each of the
industry towards supply of treated water of industrial grade
produced from effluents discharged by the same industry.
• The service provider/operator will get the payment based on
quantity of industrial grade water produced from the effluents on
monthly basis.
• Renewing consent to operate the industry may be linked to
deposition of funds in the accounts of the company floated by the
Association.
Pollution of River Ganga:
Contribution of Pulp and Paper Industries
 Through Tributaries - Ram Ganga and Kali
 Wastewater Discharge in Ram Ganga
 Uttarakhand: 162 mld; Uttar Pradesh: 74 mld
 Industrial Waste in Kali
 86 mld; 13,000 TPD BOD Load
 Pulp and Paper Industries Contribution:
 Through Ram Ganga  Uttarakhand: 146 mld (90%); Uttar
Pradesh: 39 mld (53%)
 Through Kali  37 mld (43%)
Gangotri Glacier
Delhi
Kolkata
Mumbai
Chennai
Ganga Sagar
Bay of Bengal
River Ganga – Origin (Gangotri) to Destination (Ganga Sagar)
Ramganga
Ganga
“Kannauj – Kanpur”
Stretch
On River Ganga (Ramganga)
at Kannauj
Kannauj u/s (Fatehgarh)
Kali
Kannauj d/s (after confluence
of Ramganga and Kali)
On River Kali at Kannauj
Kanpur u/s at Bithoor
Kanpur d/s at Jajmau/Jane
Kanpur u/s at Shuklaganj
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Clusters:
 Kashipur – Thakurdwara (15+3+3+3)
 Muzaffarrnagar (8+7+2+6)
 Meerut (2+3+3)
 Moradabad (4)
Water Consumption/Wastewater Generation is High; Not Closely Spaced;
Conveyance Costs are High; CETPs are not viable options; Particularly if ZLD is to
be achieved
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Present Status
 Scale of Operation: 25 – 250 TPD
 Mills with 100 TPD Producing Bleached Variety of Paper have
CRP
 Others making Craft Paper from Agro Residues do not have CRP
 All mills have ETP  PC, AT, SC
 Performance!
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Water Requirements for Four Different Categories
Category
Existing Water
Consumption
m3 / T paper
(Average)
Achievable
Water
Consumption
m3 /T paper*
(Average)
Best Achieved
Water
Consumption
m3 /T paper
(Average)
Bench mark for
water
Consumption
m3 /T paper
(Average)
A1: Agro Based
Writing & printing
paper mills
100
80
60
50
A2: Agro Based
Kraft paper mills
75
45
45
30
B1: RCF Based
Writing & printing
paper, Duplex
board, newsprint
50
20
30
20
B2: RCF based
Kraft paper mills
35
10
15
10
* as per discussions with the representatives of the pulp and paper industries
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Typical Characteristics of Water and Wastewater
Parameters
pH
Raw
Water
Effluent
A1: Agro
A2: Agro Based Kraft
B1: RCF Based
Based Writing
paper mills
Writing & printing
& printing
paper, Duplex board,
paper mills
newsprint mills
B2: RCF
Based
Kraft paper
mills
7.5 -7.8
7.0 -7.8
6
6.8 -7.3
6
TDS, mg/l
290
1100-6800
1560
800-1720
840-3240
TSS, mg/l
Nil
384-1950
466
160- 4387
56-680
COD, mg/l
Nil
776-5048
1010
262-1715
704-2016
BOD, mg/l
Nil
450-2234
543
180- 958
593-1058
Colour
Nil
-*
-*
-
-
Turbidity, NTU
Nil
35-19
106
2 -35
22- 299
Hardness, mg/l
180 -185
as CaCO3
* Mills are using RCF only at present
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Estimated Capital and Operation and Maintenance Costs for ETPs
0–5
Treatment Cost up to Tertiary
Treatment without RO , `/m3
(including capital, O & M, and
Reinvestment Cost assuming 15
Years Life of ETP as on 2010)
15
Treatment Cost up to Tertiary
Treatment with RO , `/m3
(including capital, O & M, and
Reinvestment Cost assuming 15
Years Life of ETP as on 2010)
100
5 - 20
10
100
Capacity,
MLD
Note: Actual cost will be technology and location specific
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Estimated Production Cost and Selling Price
for Different Grades of Paper
Grade of Paper
A1: Agro Based
Writing & printing paper
A2: Agro Based
Kraft paper ( 100 % agro)
B1: RCF Based
Writing & printing paper
B2: RCF Based
Kraft paper
Production cost
` / T paper
Selling Price
` / T paper
32000 – 34000
38000 – 40000
19000 – 20000
23000 – 24000
32000 – 33000
35000 – 36000
22000 – 22500
23000 – 24000
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Estimated cost of Water Reuse/ Recycle after Tertiary Treatment in
a Typical Mill of Capacity 25 TPD Paper and Pulp Mill
Category
A1: Agro Based
Writing &
printing paper
mills
A2: Agro
Based
Kraft paper
mills
Achievable
Water
Consumption
m3 /T paper*
(Average)
Average
Estimated Cost, ` / T paper
Productio
Chemical
Attaining
Complete
n Cost
Recovery from
Zero
Recycling
`/T
Black Liquor
Discharge
of
Effluent
paper
Using CRP/CCRP
Paradigm
Percentage
Increase in the
Average
Production
Cost
80
33000
163
1,200
(5,875)#
1,363
(6,038)#
4.1
(18.3)#
45
19500
163
675
(3,225)$
838
(3,388)$
4.3
(17.4)$
# Considering 25 and 55 m3/T paper without and with RO treatment
respectively; $ Considering 15 and 30 m3/T paper without and with RO
treatment respectively; Cost of recovery of solids from RO Reject on
drying is included in the RO treatment
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Estimated cost of Water Reuse/ Recycle after Tertiary Treatment in
a Typical Mill of Capacity 25 TPD Paper and Pulp Mill
Category
B1: RCF
Based Writing
& printing
paper, Duplex
board,
newsprint mills
B2:
RCF
Based
Kraft paper
mills
Estimated Cost, ` / T paper
Achievable Average
Chemical
Water
Producti
Complete Attaining
Recovery from
Consumption on Cost
Recycling
Zero
Black
Liquor
m3 /T paper*
`/T
of
Discharge
Using
(Average)
paper
Effluent Paradigm
CRP/CCRP
Percentage
Increase in
the Average
Production
Cost
20
32500
Not Applicable
300
(2,000)*
300
(3,000)*
0.9
(6.2)*
10
22250
Not Applicable
150
(1,000)*
150
(1,000)*
0.7
(4.5)*
*Considering RO treatment; Cost of recovery of solids from RO Reject on
drying is included in the RO treatment
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Recommendations: B1 and B2 Categories
• Increase in average production cost for B1 and B2 categories of industry is
in the range of 4 – 6 %.
• The cost of tertiary treatment of the trade effluent is not prohibitive and is
technically feasible.
• Achieving zero liquid discharge implies only an increase in cost of the
paper production by a few percent of the production cost for B1 and B2
category of industry and must be enforced to save the precious resources
like river Ganga in particular and Ganga system in particular.
• The implementation of this may result in slight reduction in profit margin or
alternatively the cost will be passed on to the consumers.
• Thus it is strongly recommended that the “polluter pays principle” must be
strongly adhered to achieve zero discharge paradigm in case of the pulp
and paper industries.
• This will immensely help saving the rivers, in particular the river Ganga,
from adverse impacts without significant impact on the industry or
economy or employment opportunities.
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Recommendations: A1 and A2 Categories
• Increase in average production cost for A1 and A2 categories of industry to
attain zero discharge paradigm is in the range of 17-19 %.
• This is on the higher side.
• However, in the nations’ larger interest zero discharge paradigm must be
enforced to protect rivers like Ganga, and the Ganga system.
• At the same time these category of industry are important from several
considerations including utilization of renewable agro based residues that
will otherwise be burnt and create air pollution problems.
• Hence closure of these types of industry is not in the larger interest.
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Recommendations: DBO Model for ETPs
• The past experiences reveal that most of the ETPs perform much bellow
the expected level and most of the times effluent discharge norms are
violated.
• Number of reasons, including lack of knowledge and expertise to manage
the ETPs, has been cited by the industry for poor performance.
• Also the regulating agencies, such as State Pollution Control Boards
(SPCBs), have cited many reasons including lack of resources and man
power for enforcing the regulations and taking actions for unabated
pollution of rivers due to discharge of industrial effluents.
• In several instances, as shown in the case of pulp and paper industries,
causes beyond technical and financial are responsible for unabated
pollution of rivers.
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Recommendations: DBO Model for ETPs
• Experience with other industrial sectors, particularly in water scarce areas,
suggests that third party involvement and ETPs producing industrial grade
water have been performing well.
• As such it is recommended that ETPs are planned on design, build and
operate (DBO) model with the involvement of a company floated by the
Association of Industries.
• This company will be responsible for managing the effluent recycling plants
through service provider using DBO model and will receive funds in the
beginning of the year from each of the industry towards supply of treated
water of industrial grade produced from effluents discharged by the same
industry.
• The ETPs will be in the premises of the industry. Land for the ETP is to be
provided by the industry. The service provider will get the payment based on
quantity of industrial grade water produced from the effluents on monthly
basis.
• Consent to operate the industry is to be given only upon deposition of funds
in the accounts of the company floated by the Association of Industries by
the member industries.
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Highlights

Pulp and Paper Industries, both agro and RCF based, are
important for growth and development.

Shifting towards zero liquid discharge paradigm is feasible and
must be implemented to save rivers and help maintain “Nirmal
and Aviral Dhara”.

Improvements in technology and following best practices can
lead to substantial reduction in water consumption and lower the
cost of attaining zero discharge paradigm.

Black liquor from agro based pulp and paper industries must be
sent to CCRP for smaller units (< 100 TPD). Larger units may
be allowed to have their own CRP.
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Highlights

ETPs must be upgraded to tertiary level treatment. Some or all,
depending on requirement, tertiary treated water may have to be
treated using RO.

The cost of treatment up to tertiary treatment including RO treatment
may increase the production cost only by 4-6 % for RCF based
industries and must be enforced.

The cost of treatment up to tertiary treatment including RO treatment
may increase the production cost by 17-19 % for agro based
industries, but also must be enforced. However, some concessions
may be offered to promote agro based industries.

CETPs do not appear to be viable for Pulp and Paper Industries in the
identified clusters in the Ganga River Basin. However, all ETPs are
to be managed by a company formed by association of industries.
Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin
Highlights

Consent to operate the industry is to be given only on annual
advance payment to the company for producing industry grade
water by operating state-of-the-art ETP in each industry.

DBO model is to be applied for all ETPs. Service provider is to
be selected by the company and paid on the basis of quantity of
industry grade water produced from the effluents.

Flow meters to be installed at the inlet and outlet of each ETP.

Industries are allowed to take fresh water only to make up for the
losses due to evaporation, minor leakages, etc.
Typical City / Town
Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries
CETP @ Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS Study
• There are 418 tanneries in Jajmau, the total installed
capacity is 39270 hides per day.
• Average capacity to process number of hides in all
tanneries in Jajmau area (operational and
temporarily closed) is anywhere between 20000 to
30000 hides per day with average weight of hide of
about 28 kgs.
• About 1400 liters of water is consumed per hide in
processing from raw to finish. Corresponding
estimated effluent quantity would be 24 to 28 MLD.
Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries
CETP @ Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS Study
• Jajmau is mixed agglomeration of tanneries,
houses, shops and other commercial
establishments in a very intricate fashion.
• About 4-8 MLD sewage is expected to get
mixed with effluent. Thus design flow for
the plant is estimated to be 32 MLD.
Costs Involved in the Tanning Process
Buffalo
Cow
Goat
700-1000
800-2000
60-120
34-40
32-36
4-5
Price per sq ft.
17 – 30
20-50
12 – 30
Cost of Tanning, Rs /sq. ft
1. Raw Hide to Wet Blue
6.5 – 7.0
5.0 – 6.0
3.0 – 4.0
2. Wet Blue to Crust Felt (Chroming / 8.0 – 9.0
Oiling)
3. Crust Felt to Finished Leather
4.0 – 5.0
6.5 – 7.0
4.0 – 5.0
3.0 – 3.5
2.5 – 3.0
Cost of Raw Hide
Market Price for Raw Hide, Rs.
Surface Area, sq.ft
Total Cost
Production Cost, Rs. / sq. ft
40 - 45
50 – 55
30 - 35
Domestic Selling Price, Rs. / sq. ft
45 - 50
55 - 60
35 - 40
Export Price, Rs. / sq. ft
Production Cost Price per Hide, Rs.
4-5 % higher than domestic selling price
1400-1800 1600 - 2000
120 - 180
Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries
CETP @ Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS Study
Characteristics of Tannery Effluents to be Received at CETP in Jajmau, Kanpur
Parameters
pH
Total solids
TSS
TDS
COD
BOD
N-NH4
Cl
Sulfides
SO4
Total Chrome
Suggested Design Value after Presettling and Equalization
7.0-9.0
10000-13000
2000-3000
8000-10500
4000-6000
1800-3000
100-250
3000-4500
150-300
800-1500
40-80
All values in mg/l except pH
Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries
CETP @ Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS Study
• Industries agree to constitute a special purpose
vehicle (SPV) for implementing the project.
• SPV will be responsible for operating and
maintaining all components of the up-graded
CETP and to meet the discharge norms
stipulated from time to time.
Tannery Wastewater Treatment: Desired Features
The desired features in any renovated tannery wastewater facility
proposed for the Jajmau area in future are the following:
• The portion of wastewater from tanneries containing high
concentrations of chromium should be conveyed to a chrome
recovery plant. The recovered chrome and other solid residues
from the chrome recovery plant must be reused or disposed in
a hazardous waste landfill. Effluent from the chrome recovery
plant to be sent to the CETP for further treatment.
• The remaining tannery wastewater must be screened for
removal of large objects at the tannery premises itself, before
discharge into the tannery wastewater conveyance system.
Tannery Wastewater Treatment: Desired Features
• Treated tannery wastewater to be reused / recycled in the tanneries,
such that the freshwater requirement in tanneries is reduced.
• No direct use of treated tannery effluent for sewage farming. Direct
discharge of treated tannery wastewater into the river Ganga is not
allowed.
• Tannery wastewater in the conveyance system must be screened
again before being pumped through rising mains to the CETP.
• CETP to be designed for the treatment of tannery wastewater to
tertiary levels.
• The tertiary treated wastewater may be diluted with treated domestic
sewage for reduction of TDS, and/or other advanced processes (e.g.,
RO with suitable reject management) must be incorporated for
reduction in TDS concentration.
Comprehensive Cost of Wastewater Treatment
per Buffalo Hide as per ZLD Concept
Production Cost, Rs. / Hide
1400 - 1800
Cost of Wastewater Treatment
75 – 90
(without RO), Rs./ Hide
(4.1 – 6.5 % of Production Cost)
Cost of Wastewater Treatment
(with RO), Rs./Hide
225 – 300
(12.5 – 21.5 % of Production
Cost)
Cost of Wastewater Treatment
Currently Paid by the tanneries
in Jajmau to UPJN, Rs. / Hide
4
(0.22 – 0.28 % of Production
Cost)
Sewage Treatment in Kanpur, UP
Name of Sewage Treatment Plant
Parameters
Year of Construction
Installed Capacity (MLD)
Current Utilized Capacity (MLD)
Adopted Technology
Capital Cost (Rs. in Millions)
O&M Cost/Year (Rs. in Millions)
Mode of Disposal
Remarks
5 MLD Plant at
Jajmau
130 MLD Plant
at Jajmau
36 MLD CETP at
Jajmau
1987-89
5
4
1999
130
60
1994
36
22-26
Up-flow Anaerobic
Sludge Blanket
(UASB)
Activated Sludge
Process (ASP)
Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge
Blanket (UASB)
9.5
310
235
113
56.7
To Irrigation channel or in the Ganga River
The plant is under loaded
due to inadequate
sewage conveyance and
pumping infrastructure
Summary of Information on Sewage Treatment
Plants in Patna, Bihar
Sewage Treatment Plant
Parameters
Saidpur
Beur
Pahari
Karmali Chak
Year of Construction
1936
1969
-
Under construction
Installed Capacity
(MLD)
45
35
25
4
Current Utilized
Capacity (MLD)
33
16
Not in
operation
Under construction
Activated
Sludge
Process
(ASP)
Aerated
Lagoon(AL)
Oxidation Pond (OP)
Activated
Adopted Technology Sludge Process
(ASP)
Total WW Generation: 143 MLD Total STP Capacity (installed): 110 MLD
Utilized Capacity : 49 MLD
Summary of Information on Sewage Treatment
Plants in Patna, Bihar
Parameters
O&M Cost
(Rs. in millions)
Saidpur
Fund
Requirement
7.96
Fund Allocation
0.708
Mode of Disposal
Remarks
Sewage Treatment Plant
Beur
Pahari
Karmali Chak
12.5
7.815
Under construction
1.104
4.33
For
For Irrigation
For
Irrigation &
& Ganga
Irrigation &
Punpun
River
Ganga River
River
The STP is underutilized due to
insufficient
pumping by the
intermediate
pumping stations
For Irrigation
The plant is not The plant is not
working
in operation
In complete construction due to
continuously due mechanical
the problem of acquisition of
due frequent
and electrical
land
power failures
failures
Spatial Distribution of STPs in Patna, Bihar
Summary of Information on Sewage Treatment
Plants in Kolkata City, West Bengal
Sewage Treatment Plant
Parameters
Garden Reach
Bangur
South
Suburban(East)
BhagaJatin
Year of Construction
1996
1997
2002
-
Installed Capacity (MLD)
47.5
45
30
5
Current Utilized Capacity
(MLD)
30
20-25
-
-
Oxidation Pond
(OP)
Aerated
Lagoon(AL)
Adopted Technology
Activated Sludge Activated Sludge
Process (ASP)
Process (ASP)
Capital Cost (Rs. in
millions)
774.4
114
-
-
Mode of Disposal
River Ganga
through canal
River Ganga
through canal
River Ganga
through canal
River Ganga
through
canal
Total WW Generation: 618 MLD Total STP Capacity (installed): 127.5 MLD
Utilized Capacity : 50 - 55 MLD
Estimated Pollution Load from Distilleries in the
States of Gangetic Planes
State
Number of
Distilleries
Installed Capacity
(million liters/year)
BOD load
(tonnes/
year)
88
41
Effluent
Generated
(million
liters/year)
1323
615
Bihar
Haryana
Madhya
Pradesh
Rajasthan
Uttar
Pradesh
West Bengal
13
5
21
7
469
14
7036
202
58288
1616
43
6
617
24
9252
371
74016
2968
10584
4920
Spatial Distribution of Sugar and Distillery
Industries in the Ganga Basin
Distillery Industries in Ganga Basin
• The problem posed by distillery effluents runs, literally, pretty deeprun-off effluents percolate into surrounding fields, thereby polluting
soil and damaging its structure.
• The task at hand is twofold: to dispose of effluents in an
environment-friendly manner, and to reclaim the effluent-loaded
sites that have turned into wastelands.
• The CPCB has been advocating Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) for
distilleries. However, the situation on ground is that almost all
industries do not even meet the specified effluent discharge
standards. It is necessary to adopt the concept of ZLD through stateof-the-art technological solutions and introduce third party (other
than industry and regulating agency) through appropriate DBFO
models.
Epilogue
• Prospects of generating resources through sale of treated water,
energy from waste, and sludge or sludge derived products.
• Changes
and/or
introduction
of
new
policies/legislations/regulations at the central, state and local
government level to facilitate establishing market for or generating
resources from sale of treated water, energy and sludge or sludge
derived products.
• Performance assurance to be obtained from private party and
required payment guarantee for successful implementation of the
proposed or any other DBFO or equivalent models.
• Prospects of finding private entities interested in technology
transfer and investments in recycle and reuse of sewage and
industrial effluents.
Epilogue
• Framework for concession agreements or contract documents
amongst urban local bodies (ULBs), state governments,
central government and private entities for sewage treatment
and reuse/recycle.
• Framework for concession agreements or contract documents
amongst industries, industry associations, state and central
government and private entities for treatment and
reuse/recycle of industrial effluents.
• Road map for working on technology transfer and developing
PPP models for management of both sewage and industrial
effluents.
• Road map for building on model projects through bilateral
and/or other funding agreements for achieving the target of
Clean Ganga Mission of the Government of India by 2020.
Thank You !!
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Vinod Tare_Model-Projects_PPP