Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900 Key Concept 5.1. Industrialization and Global Capitalism Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture. Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global. Key Concept 5.1. I. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced. A. A variety of factors led to the rise of industrial production. Required examples of factors leading to the rise of industrial production: • Europe’s location on the Atlantic Ocean • The geographical distribution of coal, iron and timber • European demographic changes • Urbanization • Improved agricultural productivity • Legal protection of private property • An abundance of rivers and canals • Access to foreign resources • The accumulation of capital B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies. C. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor. Key Concept 5.1. D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan. E. The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century. II. New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories. A. The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods. B. The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economies. C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets for their finished goods. D. The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centers. India’s Declining Textile Market India was a major player in the world export market for textiles in the early 18th century, but by the middle of the 19th century it had lost all of its export market and much of its domestic market, primarily to Britain. The ensuing deindustrialization was greatest 1750 - 1860. Diamond Mines, South Africa The 'pass laws' and migrant labor of apartheid in South Africa today have their origins in the policies designed to control the black workers in the diamond mines a century ago. Racial discrimination in South Africa was based on the migrant labor system. Native South Africans were treated as foreigners outside strictly defined areas of residence, the so-called 'homelands', and their movement was controlled by the notorious system of pass laws. Typically, men contracted to work in the major cities while leaving their families and political rights behind them in the 'homelands'. Migrant labor ensured a supply of cheap wage labor to the mining sector. Published in History Today Volume: 36 Issue: 5 1986 Cullinan Diamond Mine, South Africa Key Concept 5.1. III. To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions. A. The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill. B. Financial instruments expanded. C. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses. IV. There were major developments in transportation and communication. • Railroads • Steamships • Telegraphs • Canals The Gold Standard in the US Prior to 1971, the United States was on various forms of a gold standard where the value of the dollar was backed by gold reserves and paper money could be redeemed for gold upon demand. Since 1971, the United States dollar has been a fiat currency backed by the "full faith and credit” of the government and not backed by, valued in, or convertible into gold. Proponents of the gold standard argue it provides long-term economic stability and growth, prevents inflation, and would reduce the size of government. They say a gold standard would restrict the ability of government to print money at will, run up large deficits, and increase the national debt. They say the economy has historically performed best under a gold standard. Opponents argue a gold standard would create economic instability, spur periodic economic deflation and contraction, and hamper government's ability to stimulate the economy and reduce unemployment during recessions and financial crises. They say returning to a gold standard would be extremely difficult given the scarcity of gold and could severely harm the already fragile US economy. http://gold-standard.procon.org/ A Transnational business: HSBC “The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation was founded in Hong Kong in 1865 to finance trade between the China coast, Europe and the USA.” –hsbc.com “Thomas Sutherland was a Scotsman born in Aberdeen in 1834. After graduating from university he went to work for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company in China, where he was involved in the construction of the Hong Kong docks. He soon realised that with trade booming - 70% of which was in opium - there was a need for a trade bank and in March 1865 he opened the Hong Kong Bank. A month later he opened a bank in Shanghai. Further branches were opened in London and San Francisco and the business was soon financing much of the lucrative opium trade.” http://www.grandprix.com/gpe/spon-022.html Key Concept 5.1. V. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses. A. In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions of society. B. In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production. C. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization. D. In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism, some governments mitigated the negative effects of industrial capitalism by promoting various types of reforms. Marxism Karl Marx's class theory rests on the premise that "the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles." According to this view, ever since human society emerged from its primitive and relatively undifferentiated state it has remained fundamentally divided between classes who clash in the pursuit of class interests. In the world of capitalism, for example, the nuclear cell of the capitalist system, the factory, is the prime locus of antagonism between classes--between exploiters [bourgeoisie] and exploited [proletariat]. Funded by Friedrich Engels in 1847, Karl Marx published his Communist Manifesto. In his Communist newspaper, Marx proposed his main ideas for reform: 1) The abolition of the property/ownership of land. 2) Income tax to be graded to income – the more an individual earned, the more they paid. 3) Abolition of all rights of inheritance. 4) The confiscation of all property of immigrants and rebels. 5) The centralization of all credit into the hands of the state by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive economy. 6) Centralization of all means of communication and transport into the hands of the state. 7) The extension of factories and the instrument of production owned by the state. Bringing into cultivation all land not being used that could be and an improvement in the fertility of the soil. 8) The equal obligation of all to work and the establishment of an industrial and agricultural armies. 9) The combination of agriculture and manufacturing industries with the gradual abolition of the distinction between town and country by the more equable distribution of the population over the country. 10) Free education for all children in public schools. The abolition of child labor in factories; an educated child would be better for society in the long term, than a child not educated. Some historians believe the reason communism was not fully successful in Russia was because Russia had largely been an agricultural, and not an industrialized society. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/karl_marx.htm Meiji Japan In 1867 - 1868, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. Political power was transferred from the Tokugawa into the hands of a few nobles and former samurai. Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. The samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included increased religious freedom in 1873. The former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education. After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized. Catching up on the military sector was a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modeled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established. This led to increased Japanese aggression; the Sino-Japanese War in 1894 – 1895, and the RussoJapanese War in 1904 – 1905. Emperor Meiji A Push for Women’s Suffrage In 1848 Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, called a women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y.. The men and women at the convention adopted a Declaration of Sentiments that called for women to have equal rights in education, property, voting, and other matters. "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal. ...“ The National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Stanton and another suffragist named Susan B. Anthony, was the more radical of the two organizations. Its chief goal was an amendment to the Constitution giving women the vote. In 1872, Anthony and a group of women voted in the presidential election in Rochester, N.Y. She was arrested and fined for voting illegally. At her trial, which attracted nationwide attention, she made a stirring speech that ended with the slogan "Resistance to Tyranny Is Obedience to God." In 1893, New Zealand became the first nation to grant women full voting rights. -www.worldbook.com Key Concept 5.1. VI. The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy. A. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed. B. Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization. C. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community Key Concept 5.2. Imperialism and Nation-State Formation As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities. Key Concept 5.2 I. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires. A. States with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies. B. European states, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined. C. Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa. D. In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies. E. In other parts of the world, industrialized states practiced economic imperialism. The Dutch Empire “The first Dutch expedition round the Cape [South Africa] was in 1595... In 1602 the States General form a Dutch East India Company, with extensive privileges and powers. It is to have a tax-free monopoly of the eastern trade for 21 years. It is authorized to build forts, establish colonies, mint coins, and maintain a navy and army as required. With these powers the company takes only a few decades to deprive Portugal of the spice trade. A capital is established at Batavia, in Java, in 1619. The Portuguese are driven out of Malacca by 1641 and from Sri Lanka by 1658. But the main focus of Dutch attention is the Moluccas [the Spice Islands]... The Moluccas are the source of the most valuable spice of all, the clove... In pursuit of Moluccan cloves, and also nutmegs, the Portuguese make local treaties as early as 1512. In the early decades of the 17th century the Dutch East India Company gradually excludes the Portuguese from trade in the Moluccas. The Dutch also take on, and oust from the islands, another European nation attempting to get a foothold in the region - the English East India Company… The Portuguese never recover their trading strength in the east. But in expelling the English from the Moluccas, the Dutch unwittingly do them a favor. The English East India Company decides to concentrate its efforts on India. Meanwhile... Dutch sea captains have discovered that it is feasible to sail directly northeast across the Indian Ocean from the southern tip of Africa. This makes the Cape a very important port of call... In 1651 the company decides to meet this need by establishing a small Dutch settlement on the bay... [today known as Capetown]” http://www.historyworld.net The French in Algeria With the decline of the local Berber [Northern African nomads] dynasties in the 15th and 16th centuries, the valuable coastal strip of north Africa (known because of the Berbers as the Barbary coast) attracted the attention of the two most powerful Mediterranean states of the time - Spain in the west, the Ottoman Empire in the east. The Spanish-Turkish rivalry lasts for much of the 16th century, but it was gradually won - by the Turks. Their successful device was to allow Turkish pirates to establish themselves along the coast. The territories seized by the pirates were then given a formal status as protectorates of the Ottoman empire. In the 19th century France claimed they wanted to help Algeria from the Turkish pirates. Algeria became occupied by the French by 1847. http://www.historyworld.net A photograph of a young Algerian woman Key Concept 5.2 II. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world. A. The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan. B. The United States and Russia emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories. C. Anti-imperial resistance led to the contraction of the Ottoman Empire. D. New states developed on the edges of existing empires. E. The development and spread of nationalism as an ideology fostered new communal identities. III. New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism. The Creation of the Nation of Hawaii “Just prior to the first arrival of Europeans in 1778, the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands lived in a highly organized, self-sufficient, social system, with a sophisticated language, culture, religion and a land tenure that bore a remarkable resemblance to the feudal system of ancient Europe. The monarchical government of the Hawaiian Islands was established in 1810 by His Majesty King Kamehameha I. (Ruled 1810 1819). The Hawaiian Kingdom was governed until 1838, without legal enactments, and was based upon a system of common law, which consisted partly of the ancient kapu (taboo) system, that had been passed down by tradition since time immemorial. On October 8, 1840, His Majesty King Kamehameha III (pictured left) voluntarily relinquished his absolute powers and attributes, by promulgating a constitution that recognized three grand divisions of a civilized monarchy; the King as the Chief Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary. Hawaii was recognized as an official state in 1843. To counter the strong possibility of foreign encroachment on Hawaiian territory, His Majesty King Kamehameha III dispatched a Hawaiian delegation to the United States and Europe with the power to settle difficulties with other nations, and negotiate treaties. On December 19, 1842, the Hawaiian delegation, while in the United States of America, secured the assurance of United States President Tyler that the United States would recognize Hawaiian independence. Lydia Kamaka'eha Dominis, ascended to the office of Constitutional Monarch and was thereafter called Queen Lili'uokalani; she was the last Hawaiian monarch. Hawaii Continued… “On Jan. 17, 1893 the Hawaiian monarchy ended in a day of bloodless revolution. Armed insurrection by a relatively small group of men, most of them American by birth or heritage, succeeded in wresting control of the Islands with the backing of American troops sent ashore from a warship in Honolulu Harbor. Queen Lili`uokalani yielded her throne, under protest, in order to avoid bloodshed, trusting that the US would right the wrong that had been done to her and the Hawaiian people. Sugar and a coerced constitution played roles in the drama; sugar was by far the principal support of the Islands, and profits and prosperity hinged on favorable treaties with the United States, Hawaiian sugar's chief market, creating powerful economic ties. As the Islands' sugar industry grew, large numbers of contract laborers were imported first from China, then from Japan and other countries, to work on the plantations -- the beginning of Hawai`i's present multicultural population.” http://www.hawaii-nation.org/soa.html Queen Lili'uokalani See Mr. Lutece to hear authentic Hawaiian pidgin English! Hawaii Plantation, 19th Century Hawaiian Plate Lunch; the perfect example of cultural diffusion from Asian and European immigrant laborers who came to Hawaii. Notice the chicken teriyaki (Japanese), rice (Chinese/Japanese/Korean), macaroni salad (German) and shredded pork (native Hawaiian). Key Concept 5.3. Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and antiimperial tendencies of this period. I. The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments. A. Thinkers applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relations hips, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life. B. Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation. C. Enlightenment thinkers developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract. Key Concept 5.3 D. The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced resistance to existing political authority, as reflected in revolutionary documents. • The American Declaration of Independence • The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen • Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter E. These ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations, which led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented. II. Beginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations. III. Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements. Key Concept 5.3 A. Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments. B. American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States, Haiti, and mainland Latin America. French subjects rebelled against their monarchy. • American Revolution • French Revolution • Haitian Revolution • Latin American independence movements C. Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas. D. Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements. E. Some of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism. F. Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms in imperial policies. Slave Resistance in Africa and Maroon Communities “The most well-documented resistance in Africa was off the African coast on the slaving ships… the threat of rebellion seriously affected the trade. It caused losses, and raised costs because of increased security needs and because potential investors in the transatlantic slave trade got nervous when they heard of the rebellions. This resistance usually ended in the enslaved Africans failing to secure their immediate freedom. However, it has been shown to have 'significantly reduced the shipment of slaves' to the Americas by a million people. Very little information is available on individual Africans involved in such heroic resistance. One we do know of is the Asante, Essjerrie Ettin. He led a bold revolt of 358 enslaved Africans aboard the Dutch ship Guineese Vriendschap in 1769 that nearly succeeded. Unfortunately, a nearby warship rescued the slavers. They captured Ettin and he was brutally executed on the recaptured ship in front of the other enslaved Africans…” “In some more remote areas of the Americas, communities of runaways known as Maroons established themselves and were a thorn in the side of plantation economies. These maroon communities sprang up in areas as different as Suriname, the interior of Brazil and the mountains of Jamaica. They acted as a magnet for runaways. Palmares in Brazil emerged in the sixteenth century and lasted until 1695. In Jamaica and Suriname colonial authorities fought brutal and intense Maroon wars in the mid-eighteenth century in an attempt to destroy these communities, but were unable to defeat them. They had to make deals with them which allowed them to continue to exist.” – Dr. Alan Rice, The Ghost Dance The Ghost Dance, a messianic Native American religious movement, originated in Nevada around 1870. In 1869 or 1870, Tävibo, a Northern, preached that white people would disappear from the earth and dead Indians would return to enjoy a utopian life. He also claimed to communicate with the dead and taught followers to perform a ceremonial circular dance that contributed to the movement. The movement spread through Nevada and to parts of California and Oregon but subsided after the prophecies failed to materialize. Another Paiute prophet, Wovoka, revived the movement in 1889. Rumored to be Tävibo's son, Wovoka experienced a vision of the Supreme Being in 1889, after which he preached peaceful coexistence and a strong work ethic and taught ceremonial songs and dances to resurrect dead Indians. According to the vision, if Indians followed these practices, they would be reunited with the dead and whites would disappear. Indians who had already subscribed to the first Ghost Dance tended to reject Wovoka's version, but the second Ghost Dance found acceptance among Plains tribes as far east as the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Ghost Dance provided a hopeful message to all Indians, but it proved particularly enticing to Lakotas suffering poor conditions on reservations and to Lakota leaders such as Sitting Bull, who had resisted U.S. Indian policy. Lakota participants added vestments known as ghost shirts to the ceremonies and songs brought by the emissaries. They believed these white muslin shirts, decorated with a variety of symbols, protected them from danger, including bullets. Reservation officials viewed the movement as a threat to U.S. Indian policy. The government dispatched the U.S. Army and called for the arrest of key leaders such as Sitting Bull. Police killed Sitting Bull while arresting him. Two weeks later, on December 29, 1890, members of the Seventh Cavalry killed Big Foot (another Lakota leader) and at least 145 – 300 other Natives in the Wounded Knee Massacre. Many historians have pointed to Wounded Knee as the closing episode in the West's Indian wars. The Ghost Dance died out among the Lakotas after Wounded Knee, but it survived elsewhere in the Plains, and reemerged in the 1960s as part of the American Indian Movement. http://plainshumanities.unl.edu/encyclopedia/doc/egp.rel.023 The Ghost Dance The Tanzimat Movement and the Armenian Genocide “Begun under Mahmud II, and culminating in the autocratic reign (1876-1909) of Abd al-Hamid II, the Tanzimat modernized the Ottoman Empire by extending the scope of government into all aspects of life, overshadowing the autonomous millets and guilds that previously had monopolized most governmental functions. A modern administration and army were created along Western lines, with highly centralized bureaucracies. Secular systems of education and justice were created to provide personnel for the new administration. Large-scale programs of public works modernized the physical structure of the empire, with new cities, roads, railroads, and telegraph lines. New agricultural methods also contributed to Ottoman revitalization. Another response was the suppression of minorities. This policy resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Armenians between 1894 and 1923. (The Turkish government disputes that the Ottoman policy toward the Armenians was genocidal, arguing that most of the Armenian deaths resulted from armed conflict, disease, and famine during the chaos of World War I.)” http://www.countriesquest.com The Armenian Genocide Continued… The Armenian community resided in the Middle East for thousands of years and was governed by various empires including the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, and Mongols. Armenia was the first nation to adopt Christianity as a state religion in 301 C.E. The Ottoman Empire invaded the Armenian homeland in the 11th century and Muslim Turks controlled the Armenians for hundreds of years until the Armenian region was eventually absorbed into the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire began to crumble when Greece, Serbia, and Romania gained independence in the 1800s, but the Armenians and Arabs of the Middle East remained under Ottoman rule. A long-seated religious and ethnic divide deepened between the Muslim Turks and the Christian Armenians and in the 1890s, European-educated Armenians, increasingly becoming more affluent and eager for equal status, began to push for social and political reforms. They called for a constitutional government, an end to discriminatory voting practices, and an end to taxes levied only against Christians. The Ottoman Sultan responded by instituting widespread pogroms, or violent riots, against the Armenians and more than 100,000 Armenians were killed between 1894 and 1896. http://worldwithoutgenocide.org/genocides-and-conflicts/armenian-genocide The Armenian Genocide Key Concept 5.3 IV. The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities. A. Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies, including liberalism, socialism, and communism. B. Demands for women’s suffrage and an emergent feminism challenged political and gender hierarchies. Key Concept 5.4. Global Migration Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people benefited economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. In both cases, migration produced dramatically different societies for both sending and receiving societies, and presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people. I. Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demography in both industrialized and unindustrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living. A. Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population. B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the nineteenth century. II. Migrants relocated for a variety of reasons A. Many individuals chose freely to relocate, often in search of work. B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration. Chinese Migrant Workers, 19th C. “Chinese immigrants had come to San Francisco as early as 1838, but large numbers of Chinese only began to come in 1850 for the same reason many Americans were flocking to California - the 1849 Gold Rush. The Chinese immigrants were mainly peasant farmers who left home because of economic and political troubles in China. Most intended to work hard, make a lot of money, and then return to their families and villages as wealthy men. In this goal, the Chinese did not differ from many immigrants who came to the United States in the 19th century… However, while many Americans looked down on all immigrants, the Chinese were considered racially as well as culturally inferior. Most Americans believed that the Chinese were too different to ever assimilate successfully into American culture. This view was expressed and reinforced by the stereotypic images of Chinese immigrants recorded in the media of the time… Novelists wrote stories in which Chinese characters were outwardly quiet and submissive but were inwardly sinister and cunning. Some of these Yellow Peril novels predicted that Chinese immigrants were part of a secret plan to invade and take over the government of the United States replacing American culture with that of the Chinese... The U.S. government began in 1879 to consider legislation to restrict or exclude Chinese immigration.” The Chinese Experience in 19th Century America, U. of Illinois Key Concept 5.4 Continued… Examples of coerced and semicoerced labor migration: • Slavery • Chinese and Indian indentured servitude • Convict labor C. While many migrants permanently relocated, a significant number of temporary and seasonal migrants returned to their home societies. III. The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the nineteenth century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations. A. Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men. B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves in different parts of the world which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks. migrant ethnic enclaves in different parts of the world Indians in East and southern Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia The White Australia Policy “The origins of the White Australia policy can be traced to the 1850s. White miners' resentment towards Chinese diggers led to violence in Victoria, and in New South Wales. The governments of these two colonies introduced restrictions on Chinese immigration. Later, indentured laborers from the South Sea Islands of the Pacific in northern Queensland were also resented. Factory workers in the south became opposed to all forms of immigration, which might threaten their jobs - particularly by 'non-white' people who they thought would accept a lower standard of living and work for lower wages. In 1901, the federal government passed the Immigration Restriction Act which ended the employment of Pacific Islanders and placed tight controls on certain immigrants. The Act prohibited those considered to be insane, anyone likely to become a charge upon the public or upon any public or charitable institution, and any person suffering from an infectious or contagious disease 'of a loathsome or dangerous character' entry to Australia. It also prohibited prostitutes, criminals, and anyone under a contract or agreement to perform manual labor within Australia (with some limited exceptions). Other restrictions included a dictation test, used to exclude certain applicants by requiring them to pass a written test in a language, with which they were not necessarily familiar, nominated by an immigration officer. With these severe measures the implementation of the 'White Australia' policy was warmly applauded in most sections of the community. In 1919, Prime Minister Hughes, hailed it as 'the greatest thing we have achieved'.” NSW Government, Education and Communities 2013, http://www.racismnoway.com.au/teachingresources/factsheets/59.html Racist Anti-Chinese Propaganda from Australia Key Concept 5.4 Continued… C. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people across their borders. Periodization Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, 1750 to 1900 Do you agree with the above label for “Period 5”? Why or why not? If not, what would you call it instead?