 1933-Hitler
appointed Chancellor
 1933-The Burning of the Books in Nazi Germany
 Nazi antisemitic legislation and propaganda against
"Non-Aryans" was a thinly disguised attack against
anyone who had Jewish parents or grandparents.
1934-The SA
(Sturmabteilung) had
been instrumental in
Hitler's rise to power. (In
early 1934, there were 2.5
million SA men compared
with 100,000 men in the
regular army. Hitler knew
that the regular army
opposed the SA becoming
its core)
On August 2, 1934, Hitler
becomes Führer and Reich
Chancellor, or
Reichsführer (Leader of
the Reich) after death of
 1935-Hitler
announced the Nuremberg Laws in
(These laws stripped Jews of their civil rights as
German citizens and separated them from Germans
legally, socially, and politically. Jews were also
defined as a separate race under "The Law for the
Protection of German Blood”)
 1935- Propaganda Machine Begins
 1936- Berlin hosts Olympics
 1938- Kristallnacht and the Anschluss of Austria
1939- Star of David Badge – identification gathered
Nazi’s told Germans that Jews were natural carriers of
all types of diseases, especially typhus, and that it was
necessary to isolate Jews from the Polish community.
1939- Jewish neighborhoods thus were transformed
into prisons/ghettos.
The five major ghettos were located in Warsaw ,
Lódz, Kraków, Lublin, and Lvov
In total, the Nazis established 356 ghettos in Poland,
the Soviet Union, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia,
Romania, and Hungary between 1939 and 1945
The smallest ghetto housed approximately 3,000
people. Warsaw, the largest ghetto, held 400,000
The term "ghetto"
originated from the name
of the Jewish quarter in
Venice, established in
1516, in which the
Venetian authorities
compelled the city's Jews
to live.
Ghettos isolated Jews by
separating Jewish
communities from the
non-Jewish population
Judenrat – Nazi appointed
Jewish council (aimed to
make Jews their own
The Germans either shot
ghetto residents in mass
graves located nearby or
deported them, usually by
train to camps
The Germans eventually
began moving Jews out of
ghettos to forced-labor
camps and concentration
3 types of ghettos - closed
ghettos, open ghettos,
and destruction ghettos.
In 1938, the SS had begun to send Jews to
concentration camps ‘economic profit’.
 In September 1939, the war provided a
convenient excuse to ban releases from the
camps, thus providing the SS with a readily
available labor force.
 As Germany conquered more land from 19391941, the SS created new concentration camps
to incarcerate more political prisoners
 After the beginning of the war, the concentration
camps also became sites for the mass murder of
small targeted groups deemed dangerous by the
 The First Solution was nearly complete…..