1933-Hitler appointed Chancellor 1933-The Burning of the Books in Nazi Germany Nazi antisemitic legislation and propaganda against "Non-Aryans" was a thinly disguised attack against anyone who had Jewish parents or grandparents. 1934-The SA (Sturmabteilung) had been instrumental in Hitler's rise to power. (In early 1934, there were 2.5 million SA men compared with 100,000 men in the regular army. Hitler knew that the regular army opposed the SA becoming its core) On August 2, 1934, Hitler becomes Führer and Reich Chancellor, or Reichsführer (Leader of the Reich) after death of chancellor 1935-Hitler announced the Nuremberg Laws in (These laws stripped Jews of their civil rights as German citizens and separated them from Germans legally, socially, and politically. Jews were also defined as a separate race under "The Law for the Protection of German Blood”) 1935- Propaganda Machine Begins 1936- Berlin hosts Olympics 1938- Kristallnacht and the Anschluss of Austria 1939- Star of David Badge – identification gathered Nazi’s told Germans that Jews were natural carriers of all types of diseases, especially typhus, and that it was necessary to isolate Jews from the Polish community. 1939- Jewish neighborhoods thus were transformed into prisons/ghettos. The five major ghettos were located in Warsaw , Lódz, Kraków, Lublin, and Lvov In total, the Nazis established 356 ghettos in Poland, the Soviet Union, the Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Hungary between 1939 and 1945 The smallest ghetto housed approximately 3,000 people. Warsaw, the largest ghetto, held 400,000 people. The term "ghetto" originated from the name of the Jewish quarter in Venice, established in 1516, in which the Venetian authorities compelled the city's Jews to live. Ghettos isolated Jews by separating Jewish communities from the non-Jewish population Judenrat – Nazi appointed Jewish council (aimed to make Jews their own enemies) The Germans either shot ghetto residents in mass graves located nearby or …. deported them, usually by train to camps The Germans eventually began moving Jews out of ghettos to forced-labor camps and concentration camps 3 types of ghettos - closed ghettos, open ghettos, and destruction ghettos. In 1938, the SS had begun to send Jews to concentration camps ‘economic profit’. In September 1939, the war provided a convenient excuse to ban releases from the camps, thus providing the SS with a readily available labor force. As Germany conquered more land from 19391941, the SS created new concentration camps to incarcerate more political prisoners After the beginning of the war, the concentration camps also became sites for the mass murder of small targeted groups deemed dangerous by the Nazi’s The First Solution was nearly complete…..