Biodiesel
A Renewable Alternative Fuel for
Diesel Engines
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Outline
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What is biodiesel?
What can be used to make biodiesel?
How is biodiesel manufactured?
How is biodiesel used?
What are the benefits of biodiesel?
What are the effects of biodiesel on the environment
and human health?
• How will using biodiesel affect my engine warranty?
• What about cold weather operation?
• How does biodiesel perform in engines?
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
What is Biodiesel?
• Biodiesel is a renewable,
alternative fuel for use in
compression-ignition
(diesel) engines
• Biodiesel is a fuel
comprised of mono-alkyl
esters of long chain fatty
acids derived from
vegetable oils or animal
fats, designated B100, and
meeting the requirements
of ASTM D6751
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Biodiesel
IS
IS NOT
• A commercially-manufactured
fuel that meets specific,
recognized quality standards
This fuel was manufactured in a BQ 9000 facility it meets ASTM D6751 quality standards!
• Raw vegetable oil
• Filtered grease or cooking
oil
This fuel was made in Bob’s shed – it meets Bob’s
quality (?) standards! Do you trust Bob???
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
ASTM D6751 Biodiesel Standard
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
What can be used to make Biodiesel?
• Oil Seeds
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–
–
–
Soybeans
Canola
Cottonseed
Sunflowers
• Animal Fats
– Beef tallow
– Pork lard
• Recycled cooking
oils/greases
• Algae
• Other
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
How is Biodiesel Manufactured?
100 – lbs.
Feedstock
• Vegetable oils
• Animal fats
• Waste fats/oils
10 – lbs.
Methanol
Plus Catalyst
Transesterification
Crude
Biodiesel
Refining
Biodiesel
Crude Glycerin
Methanol
Recovery
Glycerin
Refining
Glycerin
10 – lbs.
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
100 – lbs.
How is Biodiesel Used?
• Pure biodiesel (B100) is
normally “blended” with
petroleum diesel for use in
engines.
• Biodiesel blends are designated
by the % biodiesel they contain:
Biodiesel blends are designated
according to the % of biodiesel
– B5
• 5% biodiesel
• 95% petroleum diesel
– B20 (most common blend)
• 20% biodiesel
• 80% petroleum diesel
– Can be used in most CI
engines with no modifications
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Physical and Chemical Characteristics
of D2, B20 and B1001
Fuel
Specific gravity
Lbs/gal
BTU/lb
BTU/gal
D2
0.835
6.963
19,764 (100%)
137,617 (100%)
B20
0.862
7.189
18,917 (-4.3%)
135,994 (-1.2%)
B100
0.866
7.389
17,111 (-13.4%)
126,433 (-8.1%)
1 Values
from the NREL Fuels Database
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
What are the Benefits of Biodiesel???
Biodiesel:
• Is renewable
• Is domestically-produced
• Is non-toxic and biodegradable
• Blends up to B20 require no (or
minor) vehicle modifications
• Increases lubricity of fuel
• Reduces global warming gasses
• Reduces tailpipe emissions
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
What are the Effects of Biodiesel on the
Environment and Human Health?
Average Emissions Reduction with Biodiesel
• Biodiesel Reduces:
– Hydrocarbons
• Human Carcinogen
– Particulates
• Human Carcinogen
– Carbon Monoxide
• Human Toxin
– CO2 (lifecycle basis)
• Greenhouse gas
– Effect on NOX
emissions is unclear
Source: US Environmental Protection Agency
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
• Greenhouse gas
• Contributes to smog
• Health hazard
B20 Reduces Harmful Emissions
Relative to Petroleum Diesel
0%
-5%
-10%
-10%
-11%
-15%
-15%
-20%
-21%
-25%
PM
CO
HC
CO2
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Source: US DOE, 2008
B20 Reduces Lifecycle CO2 Emissions
by 15% Relative to Petroleum Diesel
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
How will using Biodiesel Affect My
Engine Warranty?
• Engine and vehicle manufacturers
warranty materials and workmanship
only – not fuels.
• Any engine damage due to fuel quality
(either diesel or biodiesel) is not
covered by the manufacturer’s warranty.
– Only use biodiesel from a BQ-9000
certified source.
• Federal law prohibits voiding an engine
warranty due to the use of biodiesel;
UNLESS the biodiesel is proven to be
the cause of failure.
• Most manufacturers make specific
recommendations about the use of
specific biodiesel blends.
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Does My Engine Manufacturer
Approve the Use of Biodiesel?
• These (and other) manufacturers approve the use of various
biodiesel blends in some or all of their engines.
– Must meet ASTM D6571 quality standard
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
What about Cold Weather Operation?
• Biodiesel gels at higher
temperatures than diesel
– Gelling temperature increases
with:
• Higher blends (B20 vs. B5)
• Animal-based feedstock
– Gelling temperature can be
decreased with commercial
“pour point depressants”
• One manufacturer claims to
lower gelling temperature to
-40 ⁰F for B20.
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
UA Biodiesel Test Results
• Kubota RTV900 Utility Vehicles
• John Deere 3203 Compact Utility Tractor
• John Deere PowerTech M 4.5 L irrigation
engine
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Kubota RTV900 Diesel Utility Vehicle
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Fuel Efficiency – Diesel vs. B20
In-Use Tests
0.9
0.8
0.700
0.7
Diesel
0.600
B20
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.646
0.689
0.3
sfc (kg/kWh)
Hours per liter
Lab Tests
0.800
0.500
0.400
0.300
0.2
0.200
0.1
0.100
0
0.000
B20
Diesel
2800
2900
3000
3100
Engine speed (rpm)
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
3200
Power Output – Diesel vs. B20
Power (kW)
D2
B20
15
10
5
0
2800
2900
3000
3100
Engine speed (RPM)
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
3200
John Deere 3203
Compact Utility
Tractor
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
John Deere 3203
Compact Utility
Tractor
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
PowerTech M Irrigation Engine
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Rated Engine Speed (2400 rpm)
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Pumping Speed (1800 RPM)
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
Summary - How Does Biodiesel Affect
Engine Performance?
• Blends of up to B20
– No appreciable differences in:
• Power (~ 1-2%)
• Torque (~ 1-2%)
• Fuel efficiency (~ 1-2%)
– No effect on:
• Engine life
• Engine wear
– Decrease in:
• CO
• Hydrocarbons
• Particulate matter
Mobile Biodiesel Demonstration Unit
– Effect on NOX varies
Arkansas Biodiesel Research,
Demonstration and Education Project
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Biodiesel