The basic forms
”every phenomena of the external and
of the inner world can be given linear
expression--a kind of translation."
(Kandinsky, 68)
Kandinsky’s translation
universal correlation between color and geometry
correspondence between graphic, liner marks and non graphic
[color, music, spiritual, intuition]
The basic forms
pictorial composition as system of forces
defining a visual language
Bauhaus — an attempt to identify language of vision—a code of
abstract forms addressed to immediate biological perception rather than
culturally conditioned intellect
to temporarily isolate visual form from the context of its cultural use
theory of polar contrasts
visual language as a system of perceptual oppositions
Bauhaus
Walter Gropius, 1920.
Gestalt psychology
founded in 1910 by Max Wertheimer,
and his students Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler
challenged the notion that visual data is culturally learned
the brain spontaneously orders and simplifies sense data into
structured, holistic patterns
Gestalt
in German gestalt means form ,shape
“unified physical, psychological, or symbolic configuration
Having properties that can not be derived from its parts.”
(American Heritage Dictionary)
organizational essence of the world
holistic pattern seeking
a “digestible” whole
Gestalt theory
images are perceived as a pattern or a whole rather
than a sum of the distinctive parts
context plays a key role in perception
changing the relative size, changes the perceived
importance of the elements to each other
Gestalt theory
changing the relative size, changes the perceived
importance of the elements to each other
Gestalt theory
This is a modern reproduction of the
Minoan bull-leaping artwork from
1500 BC uncovered at Knossos.
The original 32-inch high fresco is
in the Iraklio (or Heraklion)
Archaeology Museum
Minoan Dolphin Fresco close-up
changing the relative size, changes the perceived
importance of the elements to each other
Gestalt theory
Minoan Fresco close-up
changing the relative size, changes the perceived
importance of the elements to each other
Gestalt theory
Mary nursing, in a Nativity scene, Omorphi Ekklesia, Aegina, 1282 Fresco.
changing the relative size, changes the perceived
importance of the elements to each other
Gestalt theory
the whole is not equal to the sum of its parts.
our thoughts and preconceptions shape what we perceive
we do not see exactly what is out there—our perceptions
are shaped by our thoughts
the whole is not equal to the sum of its parts
Gestalt Principles of Organization
melody is still recognizable when played in different keys,
even though none of the notes are the same
[Christian von Ehrenfels 1890]
belonging together
elements that look alike are called similarity grouping
elements that are close together are called proximity grouping
elements that have structural economy are called
good continuation
we tend to impose meaning and structure on things we see
we make patterns out of chaos
design strategies
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
figure/ground
equilibrium
isomorphic correspondence
closure/completion/projection
proximity
continuation
similarity
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
figure/ground,
the simplest and most stable interpretations are favored.
an object [form] is differentiated from its surroundings
[context, background]
the object must peel of its context to see it as a
separate form or one can observe changes in
relationship to its context
if object can not be seen as an organized structure, it
can not be separated from its context
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
figure/ground ambiguity
50%
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
figure/ground,
the simplest and most stable interpretations are favored.
figure ground and meaning
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
equilibrium
the simplest and most stable interpretations are favored.
every field tends towards order, balance and efficiency
also called: law of good configuration
or low of pragnänz, simplicity and good figure
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
isomorphic Correspondence
Specific visual images trigger associations
also called: law of familiarity
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
proximity
features which are close together are associated.
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
proximity
features which are close together are associated.
things close to each other seem to
belong together in a group
proximity may be spatial
proximity may be temporal
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
closure
interpretations which produce 'closed' rather than 'open' figures
are favored.
this principle of closure cuts across
the principle of proximity
natural tendency to close gaps and complete unfinished forms
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
closure
interpretations which produce 'closed' rather than 'open' figures are
favored.
ability to fill in information
to see parts as a whole
to supply missing information
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
similarity
features which look similar are associated
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
continuation
contours based on smooth continuity are preferred to abrupt
changes of direction.
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
continuation
contours based on smooth continuity are preferred to abrupt
changes of direction.
elements that follow a smooth curve, a straight line, or a repetitive
pattern tend to be grouped together
also called low of common faith
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
smallness
Smaller areas tend to be seen as figures against a larger backg
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
symmetry
symmetrical areas tend to be seen as figures against asymmet
backgrounds
Gestalt theory: Visual Principles
surroundedness
areas which can be seen as surrounded by others tend to be
perceived as figures.
laws of visual organization
the interplay of grouping tendencies is far from simple:
(1) the effect of simultaneous contrast demonstrates that
the appearance of parts is determined by wholes;
(2) judgments about similarity or proximity are always comparative;
(3) in compositions as intricate as paintings, posters and page layouts,
parts may be purposely made to connect by one grouping tendency
(similarity of color, for example) but to disconnect by others
(distance, for example, or differences of shape, size or direction
laws of visual organization
the parts of an image can be perceived as
distinct components, but the whole is greater
than—and different from—the sum of its
parts....
Patterns are more important visually then their
component parts
a collection of individual visual elements
communicate a gestalt which is a message
held together by design, while separately the
elements may be meaningless
Color relativity
Josef Albers Interaction of color
Study the gray in the center of one pair of complements at
the same time. What differences can you see?
http://www.rotorbrain.com/foote/interactive/hacks/co
Color
relativity
Color relativity
Color relativity
Ground subtraction: two colors
as one
http://www.rotorbrain.com/foote/interactive/hacks/colorinteraction1.html
Color relativity
Color relativity
Color relativity
Ground subtraction: two colors as one
Ground subtraction: two colors
as one
Effect of Contrast on
Perception of Color Difference
Bartleson-Breneman Effect
Transparence and Space
Vibrating Boundaries
Download

the simplest and most stable interpretations are favored