Chapter 3
Socialization
Socialization
 The lifelong process of social
interaction through which individuals
acquire a self identity and the physical,
mental, and social skills needed for
survival in society.
 Socialization is the essential link
between the individual and society.
Why Socialization Is Important
 Teaches us ways to think, talk and act
that are necessary for social living.
 Ensures that members of society are
socialized to support the existing social
structure.
 Allows society to pass culture on to
the next generation.
How Much Do You Know About Early
Socialization and Child Care?
 True or False ?
 The average annual salary of a child-care
worker is less than the average yearly
salaries for funeral attendants or garbage
collectors.
How Much Do You Know About Early
Socialization and Child Care?
 True.
 The average salary for a child-care
worker is only $15,430 per year, which
is less than the yearly salaries for people
in many other employment categories.
How Much Do You Know About Early
Socialization and Child Care?
True or False?
 After-school programs have greatly
reduced the number of children who
are home alone after school.
How Much Do You Know About Early
Socialization and Child Care?
 False.
 Although after-school programs have
slightly reduced the number of children
at home alone after school, nearly seven
million school-age children are alone
each week while their parents work.
Human Development
Each of us is a product of two forces:
1. Heredity- “nature”
•
Determines our physical makeup.
2. Social environment -“nurture.”
•
Determines how we develop and
behave.
Freud’s Theory of Personality
Freud’s Theory of Personality
 Human development occurs in three
states that reflect different levels of
personality:
 Id
 Ego
 Superego
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) children understand the world
through sensory contact and
immediate action.
2. Preoperational stage (age 2 to 7) children begin to use words as
symbols and form mental images.
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development
3. Concrete operational stage (7 to 11) children think in terms of tangible
objects and events.
4. Formal operational stage (12 and up)
- adolescents begin to think about the
future and evaluate different courses
of action.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
1. Preconventional level (7 to 10)
Children’s perceptions are based on
punishment and obedience.
2. Conventional level (10 to adult)
People are concerned with how they
are perceived by peers and how one
conforms to rules.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Reasoning
3. Postconventional level (few adults
reach this stage)
People view morality in terms of
individual rights; “moral conduct” is
judged by principles based on human
rights that transcend government and
laws.
Gilligan’s Stages of Female Moral
Development
 Stage 1: A woman is motivated
primarily by selfish concerns.
 Stage 2: She recognizes her
responsibility to others.
 Stage 3: She makes a decision based on
a desire to do the greatest good for
self and for others.
The Looking-Glass Self
1. We imagine how we look to others.
2. We imagine how other people judge
the appearance that we think we
present.
•
•
If we think the evaluation
is favorable our self-concept is enhanced.
If we think the evaluation is
unfavorable, our self-concept is
diminished.
The Looking-Glass Self
Mead and Role-taking
The self is divided into “I” and “Me”:
 “I” represents the unique traits of each
person.
 “Me” is composed of the demands of
others and the awareness of those demands.
 “I” develops first. “Me” is formed during
three stages of self development.
Mead’s Three Stages of
Self-Development
1. Preparatory Stage (up to age 3)
Children prepare for role-taking by
imitating the people around them.
2. Play Stage (3 - 5)
Children begin to see themselves in
relation to others.
Mead’s Three Stages of
Self-Development
3. Game Stage (early school years)
Children understand their social
position and the positions of those
around them.
Children become concerned about the
demands and expectations of others.
Agents of Socialization
 Family
 Peer Group
 School
 Mass Media
Polling Question
 Which agent of socialization do you
think is the most responsible for
gender differences in how males and
females are socialized?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
The family
Religion
The peer group
Education
Mass media
Functionalist Perspective:
Functions of Schools
 Teach students to be productive
members of society.
 Transmit culture.
 Social control and personal
development.
 Select, train, and place individuals on
different rungs in society.
Conflict Perspective: Schools
 Experiences depend on social class,
racial–ethnic background, gender, and
other factors.
 Children learn to be neat, punctual,
quiet, wait their turn, and remain
attentive to their work.
 Schools socialize children for later roles
in the work force.
Media As Socializing Agents
1. Inform us about events.
2. Introduce us to a variety of people.
3. Provide an array of viewpoints on
current issues.
4. Make us aware of products that will
supposedly help us.
5. Entertain us.
Polling Question
 Which media source do you think has
the strongest impact on attitudes and
behaviors of your generation?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Advertising
Television
Music and music videos
The Internet
Magazines
Quick Quiz
1. Socialization is essential for:
A. the individual's survival and for human
development.
B. all of the choices.
C. the survival and stability of society.
D. society to learn how to reproduce itself.
Answer: B
 Socialization is essential for the
individual's survival and for human
development, the survival and
stability of society and for society to
learn how to reproduce itself.
2. The lifelong practice of social
interaction through which individuals
acquire a self-identity and the physical,
mental, and social skills needed for
survival in society is called:
A.
B.
C.
D.
socialization
sociological imagination
acculturation
assimilation
Answer: A
 The lifelong practice of social
interaction through which individuals
acquire a self-identity and the
physical, mental, and social skills
needed for survival in society is called
socialization.
3. Kohlberg's research classified moral
reasoning into three sequential levels
as follows:
A.
B.
C.
D.
id, ego, superego
imagination, imitation, and simulation
preparatory, play, game
preconventional, conventional,
postconventional
Answer: D
 Kohlberg's research classified moral
reasoning into three sequential levels
as follows preconventional,
conventional, postconventional.
4. The ________ by Charles Horton
Cooley refers to the way in which a
person's sense of self is derived from
the perceptions of others.
A.
B.
C.
D.
generalized other
reference group self
looking glass self
ego
Answer: C
 The looking glass self by Charles
Horton Cooley refers to the way in
which a person's sense of self is
derived from the perceptions of
others.
5. Agents of socialization include:
A.
B.
C.
D.
mass media
school
all of the choices
the family
Answer: C
 Agents of socialization include the
mass media, school, and the family.