Socialization An introduction to terms What is Socialization • “the lifelong process through which we learn all the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that we, as humans, need to survive and prosper within a specific culture” What is Socialization • Sociologists focus on how people learn the basic rules and attitudes of human behavior that are considered acceptable in our society (ie. Don’t pick your nose) • Psychologists focus more on the development of human personality, and the acquisition of those personal characteristics that make each individual unique (how well balanced are we, how selfconfident are we) • Anthropologists see socialization as the means by which permanent human societies are produced (most important processes of socialization- marriage, family, the household) Three components… 1. Primary – where we learn how to use language, eat, deal with emotions, and learn gender roles - Comprises the basic understanding we need to function in the society to which we are born 2. Secondary – where we begin to learn how to function in groups (such as school, church, etc.) - How to follow the behaviours society expects of us while acting in group situations 3. Anticipatory – Where we learn how to think ahead and act accordingly (acquisition of social norms) - How to dress for a particular social situation? - How should we address a teacher? 4. Resocialization- the deliberate attempt by society to replace aspects of an individuals socialization with new learning's - New recruits to the military - Inmates who get released from jail What are ‘Agents of Socialization’? • “individuals, organizations and individuals that facilitate the process of socialization” Hmmm…… • With a small group (3 to 4 people), brainstorm a list of major agents of socialization. Family • First agent! (for most) • Teaches… – – – – – Independence Gender roles Social norms Right vs. wrong Awareness of personal qualities School • ‘two’ curriculums – Manifest function (formal curriculum) • Teaches academic and work related skills – Latent function (‘hidden’ curriculum) • Teaches social expectations and rules – Ex. Organization, punctuality, cooperation Peer Group (friends) • Important ‘agent’ during adolescence • Development of ‘self’ and personal identity – Smoking, sex, continued family relationship, etc… •Role of peer pressure?!?!? Media • Includes…print, electronic, music, visual • Enormous impact during adolescence – Especially when partnered with peer groups • Usually presented as absolute or unquestionable Religion • Direct vs. indirect exposure • Decreasing ‘enrollment’ • Impact on personal morals Workplace • Impact on teamwork skills • Different expectations and consequences than other agents provide What would happen if a child was removed from some or all of these agents? Feral Children: aka ‘Wild Child’. Raised by animals in their natural habitat. Exhibits animal like behaviours. Isolates: children that have been physically, socially, or emotionally removed from others, and therefore have not been properly socialized.