Head Start
Arizona Head Start TTA Office
Infant Toddler Summer Webinar Series:
Infant Toddler Self-Regulation
(developed from Brain Wonders, a Zero-to-Three presentation)
Mary Kramer Reinwasser, M.Ed.
Arizona State-Based TTA Manager
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Agenda
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Definition of self-regulation
Infant states of arousal
Responsive caregiving impact on self-regulation
Developmental tasks of infancy and toddlerhood
Development of self-control
Self-regulation milestones in infants and toddlers
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
2
Learning Outcomes
1. Participants will be able to define self-regulation.
2. Participants will be able to name that states of
arousal and alertness.
3. Participants will be able to describe appropriate
expectations for self-regulation in infants and
toddlers.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
3
What Is Self-Regulation?
• Definition
– Intrinsic and extrinsic processes responsible for identifying,
supervising, evaluating, and altering emotional reactions
(Thompson, 1994).
• Function
– To manage arousal, control behaviors and reactions, and thereby
define and adjust interactions to fit both individual and social
demands.
– If unable to master the task of emotion regulation, “deleterious
emotional arousal and the misleading identification and
misdirection of emotions” (Kostuik & Fouts, 2002) can result,
possibly leading to socially inappropriate behaviors and a limited
ability to adapt to spontaneous experiences.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
4
Temperament Styles
• Easy children are calm, happy, adaptable, regular in sleeping
and eating habits, positive in mood and interested in new
experiences.
• Difficult children are often fussy, irregular in feeding and
sleeping habits, low in adaptability, fearful of new people and
situations, easily upset, high strung, and intense in their
reactions.
• Slow to warm up children are relatively inactive, reflective,
tend to withdraw or to react negatively to novelty, but their
reactions gradually become more positive with experience.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
5
Parenting Styles
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Authoritarian
Authoritative
Permissive
Uninvolved
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
6
Developmental Tasks of Infancy
Sources of
Developmental Tasks
• Tasks that arise from
physical maturation
• Tasks that from personal
sources.
• Tasks that have their source
in the pressures of society
Development tasks
• Maturation of Sensory and
Motor Functions
• Social Attachment
• Sensorimotor Intelligence
• Object Permanence
• Emotional Development
• Psychosocial Crisis
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Messages Infants Receive from Caregivers
• I am listened to.
• What I choose to do is valued.
• How I express my emotions is accepted.
• I am allowed to explore.
• My needs are mostly met.
Source: Lally, J. R.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
8
Infants “Feel Felt” in Responsive Relationships
“’Feeling felt’ may be an essential ingredient in
attachment relationships. Having the sense
that someone else feels one’s feelings and is
able to respond contingently to one’s
communication may be vital to close
relationships . . . .”
Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain
interact to shape who we are. New York: The Guilford Press.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
9
What Do We Mean When We Say a Caregiver is
Responsive to an Infant?
 Contingent
 Appropriate
 Prompt
Source: Bornstein, M, & Bornstein, H. (1995). Caregivers’ responsiveness and
cognitive development in infants and toddlers: Theory and research. In P.
L. Mangione (Ed.), Infant/toddler caregiving: A guide to cognitive
development and learning. Sacramento: CDE Press.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
10
The Importance of Self-Regulation
The growth of self-regulation is a cornerstone of
early childhood development that cuts across
all domains of behavior.
Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The
science of early childhood development. National Academy of Sciences.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
11
Responsive Care Helps Infants to Regulate
“. . . Effective regulation of the infant is only
possible within a supportive caregiving system. .
. . By providing appropriate and changing
stimulation in response to perceptions of infant
state, moods, and interests, caregivers not only
help keep arousal within manageable bounds,
but they also entrain the infant’s own capacities
for regulation.”
Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E. A., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The
development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation
from birth to adulthood. New York: The Guilford Press.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
12
Responsive Caregivers Guide Toddlers’ SelfRegulation
“. . .the adaptation of the toddler period remains
fundamentally a dyadic adaptation. . . . as [is]
true for infants, toddlers require responsive and
consistent involvement by caregivers to remain
regulated. . . . [Toddlers] are not capable of self
regulation, but within a supportive relationship,
they are capable of ‘guided self-regulation’.”
Sroufe, L. A., Egeland, B., Carlson, E. A., & Collins, W. A. (2005). The
development of the person: The Minnesota study of risk and adaptation
from birth to adulthood. New York: The Guilford Press.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
13
Infant States of Arousal
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Regular sleep
Irregular sleep
Periodic sleep
Drowsiness
Alert inactivity
Waking activity
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
14
Milestones
Months
Birth -12
12-24
24-36
36-48
Milestones
Begins to be able to calm self for brief periods by sucking, staring, etc
Continually needs help to avoid danger
By 12 mos, may begin to “expect to be stopped”
Begins to express desire for individuality
“No” & tantrums are frequent expressions of desire to be independent
Follows “rules” about 45% of the time
Shows concern when things don’t look “right” – e.g., broken toy, damaged stuff
May show pride in action (e.g., cleaning up a mess)
Is able to follow internalized rules some of the time, but has a hard time with “transfer”
Uses social referencing to regulate behavior
Still relies on caregivers for help in following rules or containing impulses – may act out if no
one is watching
May exhibit guilt
Has internalized rules involving “dos” &”don’ts”
May argue about what s/he is supposed to do
Negativism wanes and child complies about 80% of the time
Uses private or inner speech to help remember rules & standards
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
15
Indicators of Self-Control
1. Control of impulses
2. Tolerance of frustration
3. The ability to postpone immediate
gratification
4. The initiation of a plan that is carried out over a
period of time
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
16
Sequence of Self- Control Development
• Birth to approximately 12 months: Voluntary motor acts evolve
from earlier reflexive activity. This activity can be modulated
but not always consciously.
• 12 to about 24 months: increased motor and language skills
makes it possible for the child to respond to the demands of
adults. Children at this age are susceptible to control by others.
• Approximately 24 months: marks the actual beginnings of selfcontrol due to the ability to recall instructions and behaviors
• Approximately 36 months: With age, the ability to delay
gratification begins to emerge.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
17
Responsive Caregivers Guide Toddlers’ Self-Regulation
• Think about how your own temperament style meshes with your child's
temperamental style.
• Be attuned to your child's temperament and encourage her to accomplish
tasks at her own pace.
• Make your expectations clear. Setting limits will help your child develop
self control.
• Encourage children to work with you on generating solutions to problems.
• Make communication a priority. Be open to discussion; take time to
explain your decisions and motives and listen to your children's point of
view.
• Make them aware that their opinions are respected, but remain firm in
your decisions.
• Respect each child's individual strengths and don't compare children.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
18
Supporting self-regulatory skills
• Provide a structured and predictable daily routine and
schedule
• Change the environment by eliminating distractions: turn off
the T.V., dim lights, or provide a soothing object (like a teddy
bear or photo of Mom) when you sense a child is becoming
upset
• Role play with the child how to act or what to say in certain
situations
• Teach and talk about feelings and review home/classroom
rules regularly
• Allow children to let off steam by creating a quiet corner with
a small tent or pile of pillows
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
19
Supporting self-regulatory skills
• Encourage pretend play scenarios among preschoolers
• Stay calm and firm in your voice and actions even when a
child is "out of control"
• Anticipate transitions and provide ample warning to the child
or use picture schedules or a timer to warn of transitions
• Re-direct inappropriate words or actions when needed
• In the classroom or at play groups pair children with limited
self-regulatory skills with those who have good self-regulatory
skills as a peer model
• Take a break yourself when needed, as children with limited
self-regulatory skills can try an adult's patience
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
20
Supporting self-regulatory skills
• Think about how your own temperament style meshes with your child's
temperamental style.
• Be attuned to your child's temperament and encourage her to accomplish
tasks at her own pace.
• Make your expectations clear. Setting limits will help your child develop
self control.
• Encourage children to work with you on generating solutions to problems.
• Make communication a priority. Be open to discussion; take time to
explain your decisions and motives and listen to your children's point of
view.
• Make them aware that their opinions are respected, but remain firm in
your decisions.
• Respect each child's individual strengths and don't compare children.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
21
Questions
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
22
The Arizona Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Office
and STG International thank you for joining our webinar today!
Please continue to join the 2010 Summer Webinar Series
occurring every Tuesday and Thursday during the months of
June and July at 3:00 Pacific Daylight Time.
Please contact Mary Kramer Reinwasser at
[email protected] for more information.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
23
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Self-Regulation - Arizona Head Start Association