Head Start
Arizona Head Start TTA Office
Infant Toddler Summer Webinar Series:
Brain Development
(developed from Brain Wonders, a Zero-to-Three presentation)
Mary Kramer Reinwasser, M.Ed.
Arizona State-Based TTA Manager
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Agenda
• Early brain development
• Typical patterns of development during the
prenatal and neonatal periods
• Prenatal and neonatal risk and protective
factors
• Prematurity and complications of prematurity
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
2
Learning Outcomes
• Participants will understand the developing
brain and its functions.
• Participants will be become more aware of
brain research
• Participants will be able to create strategies
that translate current brain research into
developmentally appropriate activities.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
3
Imagine a brain…
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
4
Prenatal Development
• The nervous system begins
to develop just before the
third week of gestation.
• Cell creation and movement
to the right spots occur
during the first five prenatal
months.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
5
Major Brain Systems
• Brain Stem
• Limbic System
• Cerebellum
• Cortex
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
6
Brain Stem (“survival”)
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Limbic System (“emotion”)
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Cerebellum (“movement”)
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Cortex
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Occipital Lobe
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Temporal Lobe
•
•
•
•
Hearing
Language
Memory
Emotion
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Parietal Lobe
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Frontal Lobe
•
•
•
•
•
•
Judgment
Emotional regulation
Problem solving
Decisions
Planning
Creativity
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Growing a Growing
Brain… a Brain:
Early Experiences and Infant
Mental Health
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Nature vs. Nurture
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Biology and Environment
Biology
• Recognize speech
• Discern sounds
• Word meaning
Environment
• Particular language
• Vocabulary size
• Dialect
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Brain Growth: Key Terminology
•
•
•
•
Neuron
Pruning
Plasticity
Windows of Opportunity
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Neurons
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Pruning
Newborn
Early
Childhood
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Later
Childhood
Plasticity
“The brain's ability to change as a result of experience.”
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Windows of Opportunity
Body System
Especially Sensitive
Development up to …
CNS/Brain
4th to 8th weeks
Postnatal, through to
adulthood
Heart
5th to 9th weeks
12th week
Upper limbs
6th to 10th weeks
12th week
Eyes
6th to 10 weeks
Term
Lower limbs
6th to 10th weeks
12th week
Teeth
9th to 11th weeks
Term
Palate
9th to 11th weeks
16th week
External Genitalia
9th to 11th weeks
Term
Ears
6th to 11th weeks
13th week
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
The 6 T’s of Responsive Care
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tuning In
Teaching
Time
Talk
Touch
Trust
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Take Home Messages
 The traditional nature versus nurture debate is
simplistic and scientifically obsolete
 Early experiences clearly influence brain
development, but the focus on birth to three
begins too late and ends too soon
 Early intervention programs can improve the odds
for vulnerable young children, but those that work are
rarely simple, inexpensive, or easy to implement
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Take Home Messages
 How young children feel is as important as how they
think, particularly with regard to school readiness
 Healthy early development depends on nurturing
and dependable relationships
 Culture influences all aspects of early development
through child-rearing beliefs and practices
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
Take Home Messages
 Substantial evidence indicates that poor nutrition,
specific infections, environmental neurotoxins, drug
exposures, and chronic stress can harm the
developing brain
 Significant parent mental health problems,
substance abuse, and family violence impose
heavy developmental burdens on young children
 There is little scientific evidence that special
“stimulation” activities beyond normal, growthpromoting experiences lead to “advanced” brain
development in infancy
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
The Arizona Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Office
and STG International thank you for joining our webinar today!
Please continue to join the 2010 Summer Webinar Series
occurring every Tuesday and Thursday during the months of
June and July at 3:00 Pacific Daylight Time.
Please contact Mary Kramer Reinwasser at
[email protected] for more information.
Head Start State-based T/TA Office for Arizona
A member of the National Head Start Training and Technical Assistance Network
27
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Brain Development - Arizona Head Start Association