Classical Conditioning &
Determinism vs. Free Will
I. Disruptive Conduct Disorders: disorders
having to do with undesirable behavior such as
aggression or defiance, stealing, and other
antisocial behavior.
A. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): pattern of behavior,
marked by negativity, hostility, and defiance toward authority
B. Conduct Disorder (CD): repetitive, persistent pattern of
aggressive, antisocial behavior violating societal norms or the
rights of others.
II. Determinism vs. Free Will
A. Determinism: the assumption that everything that happens
has a cause or determinant in the observable world.
B. Free Will: the belief that behavior is caused by a person’s
independent decisions.
The Deterministic Equation that explains who you are…
Internal Environment
(biology & genetics)
External Environment
(social & physical world)
= YOU (at any given moment in your life)
III. Behaviorism & Conditioning
A. Behaviorists: deterministic psychologists who insist that
psychologists should study only observable, measurable
behaviors, not mental processes.
B. Operant Conditioning: learning based on association of
behavior with its consequences. The individual learns from the
consequences of “operating” in the environment. Applies to
voluntary responses.
C. Classical Conditioning: learning based on association of
a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response
with another stimulus that does elicit the response. Applies to
involuntary responses.
IV. Classical Conditioning
A. Classical Conditioning Terminology
1) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)  An event that consistently and
automatically elicits an unconditioned response. (Food)
2) Unconditioned Response (UCR)  An action that the unconditioned
stimulus automatically elicits. (Salivation)
3) Conditioned Stimulus (CS)  Formerly the neutral stimulus, having
been paired with the unconditioned stimulus, elicits the same response.
(Bell) That response depends upon its consistent pairing with the UCS.
4) Conditioned Response (CR)  The response elicited by the
conditioned stimulus due to the training. (Salivation) Usually it closely
resembles the UCR in magnitude.
B. Acquisition: the process that establishes or strengthens
a conditioned response.
C. Simultaneous Conditioning: the conditioned stimulus and
the unconditioned stimulus are presented at the same time.
D. Compound Conditioning: two or more conditioned stimuli
are presented together with the unconditioned stimulus.
E. Extinction: the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly
presented without the unconditioned stimulus leading to
a decrease and elimination of the response.
F. Behavioral Aversion Therapy: an attractive stimulus is
paired with a noxious stimulus in order to elicit a negative
reaction to the target stimulus.
Classical Conditioning
• John Watson: Conditioning of Fear
• Orphan boy ‘Little Albert’
– 1. Albert liked the furry rat
– 2. Rat presented with loud CRASH!
– 3. Albert cried because of
– 4. Eventually, site of rat
made Albert cry

Classical Conditioning & Determinism vs. Free Will