Chapter 3
Learning and Memory
CONSUMER
BEHAVIOR, 10e
Michael R. Solomon
3-1
Theories of Learning
• Behavioral learning theories focus on
stimulus-response connections
• Cognitive theories focus on consumers as
problem solvers who learn when they
observe relationships
2-2
• Conditioning results in learning.
3-3
Types of Behavioral Learning Theories
Classical Conditioning: a
stimulus that elicits a
response is paired with
another stimulus that
initially does not elicit a
response on its own.
Instrumental Conditioning
(also, operant conditioning):
the individual learns to
perform behaviors that
produce positive outcomes
and to avoid those that yield
negative outcomes.
3-4
Classical Conditioning
• Components of Conditioning
• Unconditioned stimulus
• Conditioned stimulus
• Conditioned response
• Conditioning Issues
• Repetition
• Stimulus generalization
• Stimulus discrimination
3-5
For Reflection
• How might classical conditioning operate
for a consumer who visits a new tutoring
Web site and is greeted by the website’s
avatar who resembles Albert Einstein?
2-6
Marketing Applications of Repetition
• Repetition increases learning
• More exposures = increased brand
awareness
• “Mere exposure effect”
• When exposure decreases, extinction
occurs
• However, too MUCH exposure leads to
message wear out
• Example: Izod crocodile on clothes
3-7
Marketing Applications of
Stimulus Generalization
• Stimulus generalization: tendency for
stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to
evoke similar, unconditioned responses.
• Family branding
• Product line extensions
• Licensing
• Look-alike packaging
3-8
How Does
Instrumental Conditioning Occur?
• Positive reinforcement
• Do a good job, get a bonus
• Negative reinforcement (remove aversive
stimulus)
• Apply suntan lotion to avoid a sunburn
• Punishment (initiate aversive stimulus)
• Do 100 pushups for disobeying
3-9
Types of Reinforcement
3-10
For Reflection
• What kind of reinforcement is being used
when stores offer loyalty programs?
• What kind of reinforcement is being used
when customers are charged late fees?
2-11
• We learn about products by observing
others’ behavior.
2-12
For Reflection
• To what extent do you emulate a
celebrity’s choices?
• How does this differ for celebrities who are
overtly endorsing a brand versus those
who have an “organic” relationship with
the brand?
2-13
• Our brains process information about
brands to retain them in memory.
2-14
Memory Systems
3-15
Other concepts we associate with an individual product
influence how we will remember it.
2-16
Spreading Activation
•
•
•
•
•
Brand-specific
Ad-specific
Brand identification
Product category
Evaluative reactions
3-17
Scripts
• We rely on Scripts to set our expectations
for product and service encounters
• Examples of scripts:
• Flying
• Eating out
• Doctor Visits
2-18
Retrieval
• Unique images are more easily retrieved
from memory.
2-19
Understanding When We Remember & Forget
• Memory Decay vs.
Interference (proactive vs.
retroactive)
• State-dependent retrieval
• Salience / Recall and the “Von
Restorff” effect
• Unipolar vs. Mixed Emotions
3-20
• Marketers measure
our memories about
products and ads.
2-21
Measuring Memory for Marketing Stimuli
• Recognition versus Recall
• Problems with memory measures
• Response biases
• Memory lapses
• Omitting
• Averaging
• Telescoping (time distortion)
• Illusion of truth effect
• Sleeper effect
3-22
The Marketing Power of Nostalgia
• Marketers may
resurrect popular
characters to evoke
fond memories of
the past
• Nostalgia
• Retro brand
3-23