HSB4U Chapter 2 Intro to Social Change First Homework • Read pages 36-40. • Take notes on Anthropological Questions about Social Change – Pages 41-42. You and Cultural Change • Interview the NEW person next to you. Name one or two things they have experienced that came from elsewhere. • Was it something they brought back with them that contributed to cultural change? • Did it contribute to cultural change through invention, discovery, and/or diffusion? Ask an older friend or relative… • What was the most important social change that took place during their lifetime? – Connect the answers to Sources of Cultural Change • Invention • Discovery • Diffusion Anthropological Questions About Social Change • What are the major differences between developed and developing countries? Invention, Discovery, Diffusion • How did this aspect of culture come to us here in Canada? • A = Invention, B = Discovery, C = Diffusion • System of writing • Popularity of Thai or Vietnamese food • Latest IPhone Four Parts of Culture Physical environment Level of technology Social organization System of symbols How the physical place we live influences our culture – e.g., winter clothes in Canada How much there is – e.g, infrastructure may be less developed in a lower income country Kinship, division of labour Peace sign: Signs, shirts, jewelry, bumper stickers Homework • Take notes on pages 43-45. • Take notes on pages 45-47. Psychological Questions About Social Change • “In psychology, social change refers to the transformation of a person’s attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours and the effect of these transformations on the whole group or society (De Coeur et al., 2012, p. 14).” [see note below] In APA format, an embedded citation such as the author-date one above cannot stand alone. At the end of the report or essay, there has to be a Reference list in which the full citation of each source is given in alphabetical order. See last slide of this PPT. Marijuana Study • http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/marijuanause-by-teens-linked-with-problems-inyoung-adulthood-1.2761059 Psychological Questions About Social Change: Cognitive Dissonance • Designated driver drinks only one drink. • Procrastinators tell themselves they’ll do it in an hour or tomorrow. • Inactive people tell themselves they’re healthy enough and can start working out tomorrow. • Skippers tell themselves that “we’re not doing anything in class.” • Lazy students tell themselves they’ll start putting in the effort in grade 12. Festinger and Carlsmith (p.44) • How does the conclusion of their experiment relate to cognitive dissonance? – Make sure your answer includes these words: • • • • • Cognitive dissonance Attitude Behaviour Reward Incentive Note: when attitude or behaviour changes this is evidence of social change for psychologists Sociological Questions About Social Change Direction of change __ A from exogenous or endogenous Rate of change __ B how much regulation it will require to implement C positive or negative, for whom Sources of change __ Controllability D slow, fast, continuous of change __ Four Aspects of Social Change Environmental Scenarios • In order to cut down on traffic and pollution in a city, the following solutions have been developed. Imagine you are a sociologist hired by the city government. Your job is to analyze the likelihood of acceptance/success based on the four aspects of social change. 1. The city government will significantly reduce the property taxes for each household in which no occupants own a car. 2. The city government will establish a tax for driving in the city at certain times of day (congestion charge). https://www.tfl.gov.uk/modes/driving/congestion-charge 3. The city government will give access to the carpool lane with only one driver for hybrid or electric cars. http://www.go511.com/traffic/carpool_lanes.aspx 4. The city government will provide low-cost bicycles in areas throughout the city. http://www.bikesharetoronto.com/ 5. The city government will designate days when people can and cannot drive based on their license plate number. Homework • Take notes on pages 50 and 52. • Give an example of a longitudinal study from page 51. Anthropological Theories of Social Change • Cultural interaction as a source of social change Interaction = contact with other cultures Adaptation = making changes according to the environment • Unfortunately, contact between cultures is NOT always positive. – Examples? San Case Study Aspects of San culture before borders/fences •Communal property •H-G •Traditional lifestyle: language, religion, jobs, food, skills •Already adapted by trading, working on cattle farms Adaptation after borders/fences •Moved to South Africa •Worked in gold mines •Property ownership •Permanent settlement •Living under apartheid laws On YouTube, see The Journey of Man. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c246fZ- San • Is this case study an example of diffusion? • Listen to the reading from The Wayfinders. – What stance/viewpoint does an anthropologist take when studying a different culture? CBC Radio Ideas with Paul Kennedy. (2009, Nov. 2). 2009 CBC Massey lectures: the wayfinders. Why ancient wisdom matters in the modern world. Retrieved Sept. 17, 2012 from http://www.cbc.ca/ideas/episodes/massey-lectures/2009/11/02/massey-lectures-2009-thewayfinders-why-ancient-wisdom-matters-in-the-modern-world/ Adaptation Occurs Through… • Diffusion • Acculturation – Incorporation – Directed change – Cultural evolution Meet the ancestors. DNA study pinpoints Namibia as home to the world’s most ancient race. (2009, May 1). Mail Online. Retrieved Sept. 17, 2012 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1176140/Meetancestors-DNA-study-pinpoints-Namibia-home-worlds-ancientrace.html National Geographic: San People http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/places/regions-places/africatc/southafrica_sanpeople/ 2.47 Homework • Take notes on pages 53-55. • Read the article in the handout package entitled “Indian Residential Schools.” Match the key concepts at the bottom with the numbered passages. Psychological Theories of Social Change: Behaviour Modification • Name common student misbehaviours in class • Name teacher reactions to them • Name common childhood misbehaviours at home • Name parent reactions to them Skinner’s Operant Conditioning • Learning can be programmed by whatever consequence follows a behaviour – We repeat behaviours that are rewarded – We avoid behaviours that are punished • E.g., Skinner box – how did it use operant conditioning? • E.g., pigeon experiment on page 54 – how does it use operant conditioning? Science Photo Library. (N.d.). Skinner box research. Retrieved Sept. 17, 2012 from http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/95709/enlarge Behaviour Modification Works on the Principles of… • Negative reinforcement = if you do something society disapproves of, society will punish you or remove a privilege • Positive reinforcement = rewards for good behaviour – Seen as more effective than negative Residential Schools • Claims against the government fall into three categories: – Sexual and physical abuse – Loss of language and culture • “At the Shingwauk residential school in Sault St. Marie in 1875, children were given a number of buttons at the start of each week. Every time they were caught using a native language, they forfeited a button. At the end of the week, the child with the most buttons received a prize – a bag of nuts. Many schools punished children for speaking an aboriginal language. Punishments included: writing 500 lines, adhesive on the mouth, withholding meals, needles through the tongue, or a strap across the hand or backside.” – Inter-generational family difficulties • Parent visits were rare • Siblings segregated by sex • Letters home were in English – unreadable by parents Indian Residential Schools Resolution Canada. (N.d.). Retrieved Aug. 6, 2005 from http://www.irsr-rqpi.gc.ca/english Residential Schools SOCIAL CHANGE THROUGH (identify the social science discipline): Change in the 1) organization/structure of • Diffusion: society, and in the 2) beliefs • Enculturation: and 3) practices of the people in it. • Directed change: • Acculturation: • Assimilation: • Behaviour modification / Operant conditioning: – Negative and positive reinforcement Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McLeod, S. (2012). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Simply Psychology. Retrieved Sept. 20, 2012 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html Behaviour Modification Articles Exercise (skip Sept. 2014) • In groups, read your article about a reallife example of behaviour modification. In your presentation: – Summarize how the program uses BM – Is BM BS? • Is it a successful and effective real-life strategy for changing behaviour? Homework • Take notes on first half of sociological theories (use the new handout – uses pages 59-64). . Sociological Theories of Social Change • Tension and Adaptation – when so much change occurs in society (tension, such as the Great Depression) social institutions need to adapt by doing new things – Before the 1930s when people were struggling they’d either have to cope on their own or turn to private charities or religious supports. • With so many people suffering in the Great Depression, the government (an institution) adapted by taking on the role of helping people • What happened after 911 that showed tension and adaptation? Sociological Theories of Social Change • Blue book case studies: – Page 22 – Page 101 – Can you make any connections between them and the theories of change or key concepts from chapter 2? • Accumulation – Our knowledge accumulates (grows) over time – New generations thus develop new ways of doing things – E.g., television was new in the 1950s for your parents (or grandparents) – What would be an example of accumulation in our day and age? • Diffusion of innovations – New things are spread by people who adopt the changes early on and speak out in favour of them • E.g., celebrity wears a new fashion trend • What would be an example of a diffusion of innovations other than the one above? • Cultural pluralism – Pluralism = when minorities are allowed to maintain their traditions • Opposite of assimilation • In a diverse society like Canada there are so many groups, they need to discuss with each other before making any decisions • Slows change • What is the relationship between pluralism and assimilation? • Technology • Social network – leading to lots of social changes • Did you know that Facebook, now in its tenth year, went from having 17 million users in 2007 to 500 million in 2011? • Did you know that the trigger event for the eruption of the protests in Egypt in 2011 related to Facebook? (next slide please) Wael Ghonim • In June 2010, Khaled Said was beaten to death after exposing police corruption in Egypt. Wael Ghonim, an Egyptian Google marketing executive, established a Facebook page in July called “We are Khaled Said.” By January it had 350 000 members. The day of revolt in Egypt drew 15 000 protestors to Tahrir Square in Cairo while 20 000 people protested in Alexandria. Eventually hundreds of thousands of protestors filled the streets. Ghonim was arrested on January 27. The government shut down the internet in Egypt. On February 11, President Mubarak resigned. (See blue textbook page 22) • Gender gaps – Men and women are raised differently • Women are socialized more in the private sphere (in the home as opposed to outside the home) – McCormack studies voting » Though men and women don’t necessarily all vote together, women are influenced by their private sphere upbringing » Obama is much more popular with women – Did you know that Barack Obama is much more popular with women voters? There was an 18% gender gap in 2012 and a 12% gap in • Discourses – Smith • The way people talk about a subject = discourses • Celebrity discourse • School discourse (words like rubric and victory lap are specific to going to school in Ontario) • Social media discourse (Ms. G has no idea what hashtag YM problems means) – All of these influence the way we think and act, potentially leading to social change • As a class, write a sentence that shows “celebrity discourse” and email it to Ms. G who probably won’t understand it (that’s the point – we speak different discourses). Name the theory, key concept or theorist associated with each of the following: • • • • • • • • • • _______________ Skilled people with access to development funds; they have influence. _______________ Require consensus on basic values and beliefs in order to take action. (synonym for multicultural) _______________ Growth of knowledge from generation to generation allows development of new ways of doing things. _______________ In this older theory, equilibrium is the balancing-out factor when institutions struggle with something new. _______________ Ways of communicating that influence the way we think and act. _______________ Women are socialized in the private sphere which influences their political viewpoints. _______________ Proximity to the core determines wealth. _______________ The core of it is at the centre of profit made from international trade. _______________ By adopting and speaking in favour of something new, they cause the diffusion of innovations. _______________ Your generation has a very different one, rooted in social networking, while your parents’ may focus more on the world of work. We have to take them into account for social change to occur. References Bain, C. et al. (2002). Transitions in society: the challenge of change. Toronto: Oxford University Press. De Coeur, T. et al. (2012). Challenge and change: patterns, trends, and shifts in society. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson.