PSYCHOLOGY …AND MEDICINE 11th lecture Zsolt B. Major - [email protected] Theories of personality Theories of pesonality Other theories Social learning theory Approach of learning methods • • Bandura • • Modeling • Instrumental (rewarded) conditioning • Classical (emotional based) conditioning Phenomenological approach Tabula rasa • Love Allegory of Darwin: • = Acceptance the adaptive • Positive point of behavioral pattern view locks • Child care: (find out the good in everybody!) Personality Continuity of it…?! Scripts reactive-evocative-proactive interactions Games people play Szondi-principle (from agression, as basic property trait sy will become murder, other butcher…) Orderliness… Positiv vs. Negativ „Pygmalion” (self-fulfilling processes)! There are constant traits AND unique, special variences The aim is to be able to make reliable forecasts AND understand and manage the unique variences too!! Theories of pesonality Would you be able to extinguish a human life?! Personality = personality + situation, context, etc.!! See Ethic too!! PERSONALITY – OTHER APPROACHES – practical benefits: Social modeling – see lay image, fantasy about doctors transmitted by the madical TV-series… Phenomenologhical approach – see the justice&charity as basic ethical principles Empathy = look behind the surface: understand and acceptance of patient’s different culture, norms… …and for this to understand what could happen in the personality…! Development of your own personality Questions..? Developmental psychology Bowlby: „Good enogh” mother for the baby!!! =calculable to him/her, listen&respond to the baby’s real needs, for the baby should feel the mather’s care about his real life…! SEE IMPORTANCE OF CALCULABLE BEHAVIOR…!! Developmental psychology External environmental impact: Importance of the primary (love) relationship! Ainsworth experiment: Harlow experiment: Hairy brooder stove (expletive mother imitation) Vs. Cold, bare one • Safety affection • Uncertain affection – avoident • Uncertain affection – ambivalent • Disconcerted Developmental psychology …How is forming our personality? Long ago: = insensitive human being A baby… Today: = although helpless, but his senses are working; and his conscious (on his level) too…!! Feel/sense: • Sight • Hearing (head turning) • Smelling („Turns” to the sweet smell, or to the familiar fragnance) Researches, experiments: • Observation • Habituation – dishabituation (if he can recognize, detect the different between 2 status of stimulus’s) Developmental psychology Nature or nurture? …both…!! Developmental maturation (periodic vs. continous…??) Environment (critical periods!) There are both specific sections and individual differences too: Enviromental impacts may make affect on the maturation process: • Climb • Sit • Stand • Eyesight (eg. Congenital Cataract must be operated before 2 months of age!) • Development of personality: 1-6 months of age, or, 1-3 age!! – See Child care!! • Temperament (see reactive-evocative interaction!) Developmental psychology Development of…: • Perception, sensation (see sensoral deprivation!) • Cognitive, conceptual, language • Personality - emotional • Social DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY – practical benefits: Examination of young children – backlog, injury,etc… In case of familiar conflicts ability to recognize the degree of hazard… (Sign to the guardianship) The children are always just the symptom-bearings – help to the whole family: eg. When seeing an ambivalent affection from the child… The parent will accept our opinion, help just if we have a good relationship with her (see communicational practice!) (because the parent’s self-image will protect himself: obviously the parent will think about herself, that she is a good parent…) See psychosomatics too: primary-secundary sickness-benefits – the parent’s attention, listening is the reward to the children…! Questions..? SPECIALITIES OF THE ADOLESCENCE… Questions & Uncertainty: „Who am I?” „Where did I come from?” „In what to belive?” „Where do I go?” „Where is my place in the world…?” HUMAN VALUES: Shows directions in the Life – what to do, where to go, how behave, etc… AFTER COGNITION & ANALYISIS OF THEM…! Developmental psychology Long-life development! Erik Erikson Let’s look into ourselves… - raise up the hand who has no more question about himself, about the world…? Detect a problem have to be solved? Yes Yes No ACHIEVEMENT OF IDINTITY FORECLOSURE MORATORIUM IDENTITY DIFFUSION Is it solved? No Developmental psychology Long-life development! Erik Erikson „LIFE TASKS” For example: • Hurt/miss of trust: „good or bad…?” • Hurt/miss of autonomy: „you don’t have the right to have your own feelings, decisons: must be eated even if it’s not well for you…” • Intimacy is the prerequisite of achievment of identity (early adulthood) • Middle life (creator) crisis – „Closing time panic”) (adulthood) • Emptyness of our life vs. Satisfaction with it (old ages) DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY – practical benefits: Erikson’s olda age’s life task… - see individual psychology: to belong somewhere, compensate the value-less feeling = care about older community development You have to care with the patient’s soul too: life tasks, crisis’s in adolescence, middle life, and so on…! Psychosomatics…! Your own development: your (professional) credo, established point of view, the organization of your life, solving your own crisis’s…!! You are working with your personalityy too: let’s care about it! Questions..? Questions and answers… E-mail: [email protected] Litterature: Atkinson & Hilgard.: Psychology p. p. 460-501. 68-107. Always the related content to the lecture’s theme! Thank you for your attention! END of the 11th lecture Developmental psychology ECLETICISM…!!! – Eg. The development of gender identity • Psychoanalitics Oedipus conflict - and it’s solution • Biological approach adolescence- hormones – self-image adolescence – hormones – self-image(girls have more chaos…) -> it can be one of the reasons of conflicts with parents • Social learning theory • Alignment to the gender vs. Gender identity Experiences, opinions? HURT OF DEVELPOMENT OF EMOTIONS (THE PERSONALITY) DIFFERENTIATED EMOTIONS Adulthood: We can cope and navigate with&between…! 2 CONSCIOUS 2 MEMORY Previous experiences, development of cognition 1 Early age / infancy: + GOOD „oncoming”” (REFLEXES) - BAD „getting away” LACK OF THIS…!!! DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY Happiness, heartache, anger, fear, etc. 2) Lack of Autonomy /stability, feeling of security Or 3) Lack of positive self-image Self-centered view of world = „Everything is happening to me could be caused just by me” „It is bad to me = I am bad!” And we protect strongly our formed self-concept, as it gives us the security to navigate in the world „I am bad boy/girl.” = Eg. Treating children came from child care – understanding, acceptation of them and not to judge on them! (see at stereotypes…!) Get relation with deviant adolescence: listen to his problemes, thinkings to him – wil growth the compliance, the cooperation (you are helper professionals – in broad range of meaning of it; see biopsycho-social approach) Community development, prevention – trainings, informative, motivation lectures, etc SELF-IMAGE/CONCEPT – Affect of emotions on it… Long-life development: „LOOK BEHIND THE SURFACE!” ECLECTICISM BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL APPROACH/MODEL!