Evaluation of Training
B.V.L.Narayana
SPTM/RSC BRC
DEFINITION

Training


Provision aimed at creating intentional learning processes
To bring about semi permanent change in individuals –
Knowledge, attitudes. Skills and habits (KASH)—behaviors
With an intention To enhance performance on the job
Evaluation of training


Systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental
information necessary to make effective training decisions
Is affected by
 Need analysis, participation, other antecedent conditions,
design and delivery and transfer of training
Evaluation of training

Antecedent conditions


Design and delivery


Are what trainees bring to training
Structuring and methods of delivering content
Transfer of training

Transfer of training is defined as the degree to
which trainees apply the knowledge, skills , and
attitudes gained in training to their job ( Ford and
weissbein 1997; Tannebaum and Yulk 1992;
Wexley and latham 1991)
TRAINING AND TRANSFER
Learning and skill
development
Achieve
orgn results
Achieve self
results
Knowledge
transfer and
utilisation
Sharing to
learn and use
Factors affecting transfer and use
Facilitation
Transfer and
use
Personality
Evaluation criteria
Individual
learning and use
Linked rewards and
punishments
Training and transfer
Knowledge,
concepts
Attitudes
Ability to do
roles
ACQUISITION
Skills
Motivation to learn
Habits
TRAINING
Improved
performance
UTILISATION AT
JOB
Motivation to
transfer
Transfer of training
For individual
performance
Present job
Future job
Sharing
Organisational strategy,
individual strategy
Transfer of
skills to
others
Participation

Factors influencing participation
 Organizational




Alignment with organizational strategy
Change, innovative work practices
High performance work systems
In large organizations



At job level


Economies of scale, work place recognition, union involvement, specialized
skills
Showing greater support for training and development
Highly skilled jobs
At individual level


More motivated to learn, continuous learning
More committed
Antecedent conditions

Are


What trainees bring to training
 High cognitive ability
 High motivation to learn-desire to learn
 High training and performance goal orientation
Work environment factors-facilitating trainee participation
and learning
 Enablers of use of training at work place



Rewards, recognition, support, resources
Organizational direction and support
How training is prepared
 Content has to be relevant, interesting, appropriate and
have opportunities for practice, enable mental
conceptualization of material
Motivation to learn


Motivation to learn is defined as the specific desire of a learner to
learn the content of training programme (Noe 1986; Noe and
Scmitt 1986) –supported by
 High training goal orientation
 Lack anxiety
 High internal locus of control
 High achievement motivation
 Conscientitious
 High self efficacy
 Committed
 Plan their career
Organizational support, peer and supervisor support
Training design

Is based on how people learn and how
organizations learn


Learning cycles (Sanchez 2002)
Learning principles (Kolb 1984)
 Recall from memory
 Apply principles to task
 Symbolic mental rehearsal
 Reinforcement
 Feed back and response
 Self monitoring of learning
 Cater to differences in aptitudes
Design of training

Learner control


Trainer skills




Enabling trainee to participate in design of programme
 Has a very small role, good for procedural and skill based
learning
Use of line managers, peers unskilled trainers reduces
efficacy of training
Use expert and skilled trainers
Question of outsourcing
 Issues of trust, contextual familiarity, commitment
Types of training

Individual, team, error and e-learning
Delivery

Contexts




Separate
As part of high performance work systems
Influenced by
 Trainees learning style
 Methodology of delivery
 Way training is delivered-Kolb’s experiential learning
cycle(1984) – concrete experience, reflective observations,
abstract generalization, active experimentation
 Specific population and content
Maximum transfer of training occurs when conditions for
transfer are included in training, practice scenarios, trainee
is allowed to set goals, gets rewards and trainee
supervisors are trained
Methodologies

Groups of methods used in training






Information presentation
Modeling- demonstration
Information presentation and learner response—
case method
Systematic response generation—contextualizing
the training
Simulation
On the job training
High performance work
systems

A growing body of research suggests that the use of
a set of HR practices, including






comprehensive employee recruitment
selection procedures, compensation
and performance management systems,
information sharing, and
extensive employee involvement and training,
can improve the acquisition, development and
retention of a talented and motivated workforce.
These HR practices are usually referred to as high
involvement, high commitment, or high performance
work systems.
Training design

Involves five steps


Specify instructional objectives
Decide sequence of activities



Select training method
Ensure good learning environment


Content based on learning principles
To maintain motivation to learn
Design measures of training effectiveness
Transfer of training

Aims of transfer



Apply to improve performance
 Immediate—learn and apply
 Long term –maintain and apply, transfer to others
Is impacted by factors
 What occurs before training
 What occurs during training
 What occurs after training
Factors classified as
 Individual
 organizational
Transfer of training

Individual

Learner characteristics








Cognitive ability
Motivation to learn
Anxiety
Openness to experience
Perceived utility
Career planning
Organizational commitment
High motivation to transfer
Transfer of training

Training environment






Learning goals
Content relevance
Practice and feed back
Behavioral modeling
Error based examples
Work environment




Transfer climate
Supervisor support
Peer support
Opportunity to perform
Evaluation of training

Most commonly based on four stages model


Four stages of evaluation





Kirkpatrick (1959,1976,1994,2006)
Reactions
Learning
Behavioral
Results
Research shows that most used is

Reactions (72%), followed by learning( 32%) behavioral (
19%) and results (7%)
Evaluation of training
Category
Definition
Methods
Time lag
Key issues
Reactions
Affective
attitudinal
responses
Self report
measures
immediate
Not related to trainee
learning and transfernot utility based
Learning
programme
outcomes
Paper
pencil test
25-30days
Necessary for
performance
Behavioral
Actual
Supervisor 4-6
performance ratings
months
on job
Susceptible to
environment variables
Results
Are
monetary
benefits
Are most distant,
difficult to correlate
Utility
analysis
6-8
months
Evaluation of training

Research


Very few to establish causal sequence of
Kirkpatrick's model
New models are being developed


Holton's model
Proof that training helps


Immediate
Long term
Evaluation of training
SECONDARY
INFLUENCES-Performance self efficacy,
learner readiness
ENVIRONMENTAL ELEMENTS-Feed back, Peer supposrt, Supervisor
support, Openness to change
MOTIVATIONAL ELEMENTS-Motivation to transfer, Transfer effort
performance expectations, Performance
to outcomes expectations
Personal outcomes positive,
Personal outcomes negative
and Supervisor sanctions
LEARNING
INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE
ABILITY -Content validity,
Transfer design,
Personal capacity
to transfer,
Opportunity to use
ORGANISATIONAL RESULTS
Evaluation of training
Personality
characteristics
Intervention
readiness
Intervention
fulfillment
Secondary influences
Job attitudes
Motivation elements
Environmental
elements
Outcomes
Ability / enabling
elements
Motivation
to Learn
Reaction
Learning
Ability
Motivation
to transfer
Transfer
climate
Individual performance
Transfer
design
Expected
utility / ROI
External
events
Organisational
results
Linkage to
organisational goals
Theory of planned behavior
Attitude towards the
behaviour
Intention
Subjective norm
Perceived
behaviour
control
Behaviour
Theory of planned behavior

The theory of planned behaviour states that the most important
determinant of a persons behaviour
 is behaviour intent ( Ajzen 1991; Ajzen and Fishbien 1980;
Fishbien and Ajzen 1975) and
 that this intent is dependent upon His attitude, the pervailing
norms and perceived behaviour controls.
 Peoples attitudes towards their behaviour refers to the degree to
which they are made favourable or unfavourable evaluations of
behaviour in question.

subjective norms are perceived social pressures from significant
others to perform or not to perform.
 Perceived behavioral controls are the perceived ease or difficulty
of performing a beaviour. more favourable the norms and
attitudes, more favourable is te perceived beavioural controls and
stronger the individual intention to perform the behaviour under
consideration
Beliefs
Performance
Skills
Actions
THANKS ANY QUESTIONS
Download

Evaluation of Training