CHAPTER 6, 7, 10 NOTES EXAM 2 NOTES INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 6 - LEARNING • 1. WHAT IS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? HOW IS IT RELATED TO LEARNING? • Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes as a result of experience. • How do individuals learn? • By identifying relationships between events and noting regularity in the environment. • Habituation is the fading of a response to a stimulus and can be used as an indicator of learning. • Classical conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus triggering a natural reflex until the neutral stimulus also triggers the reflex response. • Classical conditioning has 3 phases: (1)identifying a reflex and a neutral stimulus you are interested in; • (2) pairing the reflex and the neutral stimulus; • (3)responding with the reflex response to the previously neutral stimulus alone. 2. HOW CAN INDIVIDUALS LEARN FEAR? • The strength and ease of learning (classical conditioning) depends on the nature of the CS and the UCS and • how they are associated. 3. HOW DOES STIMULUS INTENSITY AFFECT CONDITIONING OR LEARNING? • Stimulus intensity is a characteristic of the UCS; • conditioning or learning happens more quickly and easily if the UCS is stronger and • if the number of associations is increased. • Delayed conditioning is most effective and is accomplished by presenting the CS first and • then presenting the UCS, and • terminating both at the same time. • In this method, the CS becomes a reliable predictor of the UCS. 4. WHAT IS TASTE AVERSION LEARNING? HOW IS IT RELATED TO CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? • Learning to avoid eating or drinking something because of an unpleasant association to the taste. • Taste aversion or avoidance is an example of classical conditioning. 5. HOW DOES BIOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS AFFECT CONDITIONING? • Some responses learned more quickly and easily than others when individuals are biologically prepared to learn them. • Example: taste aversion may be learned because it is dangerous to survival to eat a harmful substance. • Examples include: we are more likely to learn to fear dogs, snakes, and spiders than doors and pencils. 6. HOW DOES PREDICTIVE VALUE AFFECT CONDITIONING? • Predictive value = ability of the CS to reliably predict or signal the UCS. • Examples: rats became ill every time they drank the plastic-tasting water. • Cancer patients felt nauseated only when they ate a particular flavor of ice cream. 7. WHAT IS LEARNED IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? • We learn to produce an adaptive, automatic response when the CS or previously neutral stimulus reliably predicts an important event. 8. WHAT ARE THREE ASPECTS OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OVER TIME? • (a) stimulus generalization: responding to in a similar way to events, objects, or individuals that are similar but not identical to the original CS • (b) stimulus discrimination: responding differently to events, objects, or individuals who are similar but not identical to the original CS. • (c) extinction: gradual disappearance of CR by eliminating the association between the CS and the UCS. 9. WHAT ARE TWO EXAMPLES OF CONDITIONING ? • (a) phobias and anxiety: • phobias are strong fears of objects or situations that are not objectively dangerous or that are less dangerous than a person's response would suggest. • Anxiety is an intense fear response that usually occurs when an individual experiences conflict or threat. -- • (b) promoting health and treating illness: systematic desensitization is a procedure that associates a new response such as relaxation with a feared stimulus. • Medical applications have included treating allergies and hay fever by classically conditioning responses of the immune system. 10. WHAT ARE INSTRUMENTAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING? • Instrumental conditioning occurs when responses are learned and repeated that produce some rewarding or desired effect. • These forms of learning are based on the law of effect • that states that a response made in the presence of a stimulus and followed by a reward is more likely to occur the next time the stimulus is present. • Operant conditioning is the process of learning responses as a result of particular consequences (such as reinforcement or lack of reinforcement). 11. WHAT ARE THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING? • Operant: a response that operates or has an effect on the environment. • Reinforcer or reinforcement: event or object that increases the probability or likelihood that a response will occur. • May be positive or negative. • Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the likelihood of a response occurring again. • Positive reinforcers strengthen responses by being present and • negative reinforcers strengthen responses by being taken away or avoided. • Superstitious behavior results from accidental reinforcement where reward follows behavior through luck or coincidence. • Extinction is the process of weakening behavior by not reinforcing it. • Discriminative stimuli are objects, events, or experiences that signal whether reinforcement is likely to occur. • -- • Stimulus control is available through discriminative stimuli and • allows an individual to learn which behaviors are appropriate and which are not. • Stimulus generalization occurs when we give a similar response to a similar but not identical stimulus to the original stimulus. • Stimulus discrimination occurs when we give a different response to a similar but not identical stimulus. 12. HOW DOES SHAPING RELATE TO FORMING AND STRENGTHENING OPERANT BEHAVIORS? • Shaping: • reinforcing successive approximations or responses that are successively more similar to the desired response. • Shaping is useful because often the exact, desired response does not occur spontaneously. 13. HOW DO DELAY AND SIZE OF REINFORCEMENT AFFECT OPERANT CONDITIONING? • Learning occurs faster if • (a) reinforcement delay is short and • (b) reinforcement size is large. 14. HOW DO SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT AFFECT OPERANT CONDITIONING? • Continuous reinforcement is delivered every time the response occurs. • Partial reinforcement occurs only part of the time. • Partial reinforcement occurs in 4 basic types: • (a)fixed ratio, • (b)variable ratio, • (c)fixed interval, and • (d)variable interval. -- • There are three basic response patterns: • (a) fixed ratio and variable ratio produce high rates of behavior; • (b)fixed interval produces a scalloped effect in which response rates drops immediately after reinforcement and increases gradually as the time approaches for the next reinforcement; - • (c) variable interval produces a slow, steady rate of responding because of unpredictable timing of reinforcement. 15. HOW DO SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT AFFECT EXTINCTION OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR? • Behavior learned under partial reinforcement schedules is more difficult to extinguish than behavior learned under continuous reinforcement. • Examples: (a) a slot machine gives partial reinforcement when it operates correctly ; • (b) a vending machine gives continuous reinforcement when the machine operates correctly. 16. WHAT EVENTS CAN ACT AS REWARDS AND MOTIVATE LEARNING? • Any object, event, or situation or individual can act as a reinforcer • if paired with another object, event, situation, or individual that is already reinforcing. • An important distinction is between primary and secondary reinforcers. • Primary reinforcers are naturally reinforcing and rewarding. • Examples of primary reinforcers are pleasurable touch, food, water, pain, and air. • Secondary reinforcers are learned, including money, grades, and praise. • Secondary reinforcers are neutral at first and later acquire reinforcing characteristics through associations with primary reinforcers. -- • The Premack principle is based on the idea of a hierarchy of behavioral preference, • with items ranked from most to least reinforcing or desirable. • Any highly frequent activity, object, event, or situation can come to reinforce or strengthen a less frequent behavior. 17. WHAT IS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AND HOW DOES IT AFFECT LEARNING? • Negative reinforcement is escaping or avoiding a unpleasant event, object, or experience. • Effects have been studied using escape and avoidance conditioning. • Avoidance occurs when we learn to avoid or prevent exposure to an unpleasant situation or aversive reinforcer. • Escape occurs when we learn to end an unpleasant or aversive reinforcer. -- • Escape or avoidance behavior is a difficult habit to break • because of reduced fear, anxiety, or other unpleasant emotion associated with the escape or avoidant behavior. 18. WHAT IS PUNISHMENT AND HOW DOES IT AFFECT LEARNING? • Punishment occurs when we experience an unpleasant emotion, event, or situation. • Effect of punishment is to decrease the likelihood of a response occurring immediately prior to experiencing the punishment. • Punishment occurs as the presence of an unpleasant event or experience or the ending of a pleasant event or experience. 19. HOW CAN WE BE MORE LIKELY TO USE PUNISHMENT WISELY? • Realize and be aware of the drawbacks: • (a)can produce undesirable side effects; • (b)often ineffective unless occurring immediately after the undesirable behavior; • (c) often results in aggressive responses; -- • (d) often effective only in specific situations; • (e) may produce misunderstanding. • Realize and use positive guidelines: • (a) specify why punishment is used and distinguish between behavior and being punished and the person to prevent unhealthy fear and anger; -- • (b) should be immediate and severe enough to be effective; • (c) identify and positively reinforce more desirable responses. 20. WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING? • (a) treating problem behavior, using discriminative stimuli such as overeating, smoking, and other substance abuse; • -- • (b) learned helplessness, which is the tendency to give up efforts to control or influence the environment after frequent failure experiences; - • believing that nothing you can do will change your life or influence your destiny can have compelling influence • you may stop acting to improve the situation and endure painful situations passively. - • (c) improving education: • successful strategies include operant conditioning, - • includes positively reinforcing desirable behavior, • Giving immediate feedback regarding mistakes. - • Emphasize positive reinforcement, group reinforcement, and family involvement • Example using other animals: • http://www.youtube.com/v/fcdYIL_jy-8 • results in greater success than interventions not using these components. 21. WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM THE BOBO STUDIES? • In general that observational learning can occur. • Specifically that: • (a) those who observed adults being rewarded for aggression showed the most aggressive behavior more quickly; • (b) those who observed the adults being punished for aggressive behavior showed the least aggressive behavior; -- • (c) those who observed adults who were neither rewarded nor punished for aggressive behavior • learned and imitated the aggressive behavior and demonstrated observational learning. 22. WHAT IS OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING AND WHAT ARE 4 REQUIREMENTS FOR THIS TYPE OF LEARNING? • (a) attention: focus reasonably close awareness of the behavior; • (b) retention - remember what you observe; • (c) physical ability to produce the behavior physically capable of reproducing the behavior; • (d) motivation -desire or reason to perform the behavior. CHAPTER 7 MEMORY 1. WHAT ARE THREE TYPES OF MEMORY DISCUSSED IN THE TEXT? • (a) episodic: memory for specific events occurring while you were present. • (b) semantic: generalized knowledge with no specific event information associated. • (c) procedural: skill memory, including how to do things. 2. WHAT ARE THREE BASIC MEMORY PROCESSES? • (a) encoding: put information into memory using a form the brain and nervous system can use. can be based on any sensory ability, or meaning. • (b) storage: maintaining information in memory over time. • (c) retrieval: find information in memory and bring it into conscious awareness. 3. WHAT ARE THREE STAGES OF MEMORY? • (a) sensory: information from the senses held in sensory registers for a second or less; • may be attended to, analyzed, encoded as a meaningful pattern; • (b) short term: once perceived, information enters this stage; if nothing else occurs, information disappears (fades) within 20-30 seconds. • c) long-term: if further processing occurs, an unlimited information can remain in memory indefinitely. 4. WHAT ARE PROPERTIES OF SENSORY MEMORY? • (a) icons: mental representations of visual images; • usually last about one second or less. • (b) iconic memory: sensory register holding icons; • allows smooth visual scanning; • (c) echoes: mental representations of auditory or sound-based images. • (d) echoic memory: sensory register for echoes or auditory sensations. • Perception transfers sensory impressions (icons and echoes) to short term memory. 5. HOW IS INFORMATION ENCODED INTO SENSORY MEMORY? • • • • may be encoded into visual, auditory, or tactile images. 6. HOW IS INFORMATION STORED IN SHORT TERM MEMORY? • Capacity of short-term memory is 5-9 items with an average of 7. • Items can be individual units or chunks of information, each containing several units. 7. WHAT IS THE POWER OF CHUNKING? • Can remember a larger amount of information overall by grouping related items of information into chunks or categories of information. 8. HOW CAN CHUNKING BE USED TO INTEGRATE SHORT TERM MEMORY AND LONG TERM MEMORY? • chunking requires integrating information in short term memory (present consciousness and active working memory) with • information in long-term memory (passive storage is like a library) and • organizing information in terms of what we already know 9. WHAT ARE THE DURATION AND CAPACITY OF SENSORY, SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM MEMORY? • • Sensory duration (length of time); < 1 second -2 seconds • short-term 20-30 sec • long-term indefinite capacity (# items) 1-2 items 5-9 items; average=7 indefinite 10. WHAT ARE 2 CAUSES OF FORGETTING? WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEM? • (a) decay: mental representation disappears gradually. • (b) interference: new information displaces information already in memory. • 12. HOW ACCURATE IS EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY? • may be completed as part of GEC bonus assignment. • 13. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AND SIMILARITIES SHARED BY ANTEROGRADE AND RETROGRADE AMNESIA? • may be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment. • 14. EXPLAIN REASONS WHY FORGOTTEN MEMORIES MAY OR MAY NOT REMAIN IN THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND. • may be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment. 15. HOW DO REHEARSAL AND LEVELS OF PROCESSING AFFECT LONG TERM MEMORY? • There are two basic types of rehearsal: • (a) maintenance - repeating items over and over; shallow processing; keeps information in shortterm memory; ineffective for long-term memory. • (b) elaborative - thinking about how new material relates to material already in long-term memory; deeper processing than maintenance. • Key to difference: degree or depth of processing to which incoming information is processed; • the more you think about information and organize new information and relate it to existing knowledge, the deeper and more effective the processing. • -- • Memory more strongly influenced internal than external factors. • Internal factors include how you think about the information and relate it to existing knowledge as well as • noticing distinctive features or attributes that are noticeably different from what you would expect. --- • • • • External factors include how information is displayed, amount of information, and how long you are exposed to the information. 16. HOW IS SEMANTIC CODING RELATED TO LONG TERM MEMORY? • Semantic coding focuses on underlying meaning or general meaning rather than specific details; • counterfeiters rely on generality of semantic visual coding of information such as on the face of a coin. 17. HOW IS VISUAL CODING RELATED TO LONG TERM MEMORY? • Possible to encode visual images in long term memory because pictures have many distinctive features likely to attract attention; • visual images may be represented by both visual and semantic codes. • -- • • • • Eidetic memory: form of photographic memory; automatic; long term vivid images of observed information; • more common in children. • 18. WHAT IS THE COURSE OF FORGETTING IN LONG-TERM MEMORY? may be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment. • 19. WHAT RESEARCH RESULTS SUGGEST AS THE MAIN CAUSE OF FORGETTING IN LONG-TERM MEMORY? may be completed part of GEC Bonus assignment. • 20. HOW DO DURATION AND CAPACITY OF MEMORY RELATE TO LONG-TERM MEMORY AND THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBCONSCIOUS MIND? may be completed part of GEC Bonus assignment. 21. WHAT ARE FORMS OF REPRESENTATION AS THEY RELATE TO LONG TERM MEMORY AND RETRIEVAL? • Information usually represented in long-term memory as bundles of features. • Process of matching stored features to those of new information allows recognition. • Unique bundles of features are the raw material of thinking. • -- • Retrieval signals or cues such as words, phrases, letters, or pictures assist in the recovery of information from long-term memory. • Generally, recognition easier than recall. • Most effective cues for retrieval tap information encoded at the time of learning. -- • Best long-term memory retrieval cues evoke meaning of stored information. • Example, something heavy cues lifting; • make nice sounds cues tuned. 22. HOW DO CONTEXT AND STATE DEPENDENCE AFFECT RETRIEVAL IN LONG TERM MEMORY? • Generally easier to remember information if you recall it in the same environment and state of mind previously associated with the information. • Tend to encode features of the surrounding environment as well as emotions that serve as retrieval cues. • Explains why we often perform better on regularly scheduled tests rather than make-up tests. 23. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF EMOTION IN LONG TERM MEMORY RETRIEVAL? • Often a match between emotional state and informational content to be learned. • Positive emotions tend to make memory easier. • Negative emotions tend to interfere with memory. • Happy mood usually results in remembering more pleasant events. • Unhappy mood usually results in remembering more unpleasant events. • -- • Flashbulb memories: intense emotion experiences produce vivid, detailed, longlasting memories (Challenger, JFK, MLK, World Trade Center, Pentagon) • Why? Remembered event has many consequences for a person's life. • May think about the event and form a network of associations with other knowledge areas. • Motivated forgetting: effect of negative emotion on memory often is such that we are motivated to forget or distort memory of negative events. • May dwell on positive memories as a defense mechanism. • May not attend to negative aspects of events with result information is not encoded in a detailed way. 24. HOW DOES RETRIEVING INCOMPLETE KNOWLEDGE RELATE TO LONG TERM MEMORY RETRIEVAL? • If cannot recall information, many times can recognize the information. • Tip of the tongue phenomenon: if we cannot recall the definition of a word, often we can identify particular features of the word such as number of syllables, beginning or ending letters, or a rhyming word. • Often recall some of the features but not enough to recall or identify the word completely. • Author of Iliad and Odyssey? • Bart Simpson’s dad’s name? 27. WHAT ARE METAMEMORY AND MNEMONICS? HOW CAN THEY BE USED TO IMPROVE MEMORY? • Metamemory: • knowledge about memory or how memory works; • consists of 3 types of knowledge: • (a) understanding the abilities and limitations of your own memory; • (b) knowledge of different types of memory tasks, such as recall and recognition; • (c) knowledge of what types of strategies are effective in remembering new information. • Mnemonics: • strategies for putting new information in an organized context and form to remember more effectively. • • • • Methods: (a) verbal organization – HOMES = names of Great Lakes; Every Good Boy Does Fine = notes on the piano; • On Old Olympus - Towering Tops A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops = names of cranial nerves. -- • (b)loci - think of familiar geographical locations; • imagine items to be remembered in each location using novel and vivid images. • (c) key-word or peg-word: remember 1-bun, 2shoe, 3-tree, etc. and • associate items to be remembered with familiar images associated with the numbers. • Guidelines for studying: • (a) distributed practice is more effective than cramming. • (b) create a context to organize and store information. • (c) slow down if reading difficult material. -- • (d) think about the information and elaborate it using a meaningful and organized context. • (e) make sure you understand the material you are reading by being able to explain it to someone else. • (f) use SQRRR/PQRST reading strategies. -- • (g) lecture notes - more is not necessarily better; • think about what you are hearing and recording; • best to think about what you observe; • create associations with other more familiar ideas and materials; -- • summarize major ideas and points; • review as soon as possible; • make outlines or create concept maps and think about how the information is interrelated. 28. WHERE AND HOW ARE MEMORIES STORED? • may be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW • MENTAL ABILITIES - CHAPTER 10 1. What is mental ability? • • • • • • capacity to perform higher mental processes of reasoning, remembering, understanding, problem solving, and decision making 2. What is intelligence? • according to Sternberg: • possession of knowledge; • ability to use information processing to reason about the world, • ability to use reasoning to adapt to different environments. 3. How was the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test developed? • Alfred Binet set out to identify children who might need special instruction in school; • Made two assumptions: • a)intelligence is involved in many thinking and reasoning activities so measurement of intelligence should involve such reasoning activities; • b)intelligence increases with age, so if a person scores higher than a person his own age, that person would be mentally older and more intelligent; • Binet developed a series of age-graded tasks and determined the average number of questions answered correctly for each age group; • Defined average number as a "mental age;" • Would then be possible to compare mental age with chronological age to determine if a person were average, below average, or above average. -- • If mental age (MA) = chronological age (CA), the person could be described as having normal or average intelligence; • if MA greater than CA, the person could be described as having advanced intelligence; • if a person’s CA were less than his MA, he could be described as having retarded intelligence. • -- • Binet's test was tool to find out which children needed help in school. • Binet assumed intelligence was not a fixed or unchanging trait. 4. How was American intelligence testing different from Alfred Binet's testing? • Lewis Terman, at Stanford University in California, developed an American English version of Binet's test. • Terman and colleagues revised the scoring so that the IQ or intelligence quotient was defined as MA divided by CA multiplied by 100. • Idea of IQ has been related to intelligence tests so that any test used to measure intelligence on an objective, standardized scale can be described as an intelligence test. • - • American test, called the Stanford-Binet, • Was based on the belief • That intelligence is a fixed or unchanging trait that is mostly inherited, • That different groups have different amounts of intelligence, -- • That IQ tests could pinpoint which people did and did not have genes for suitable intellectual levels. • American version of Binet's test was misused. • Problems in the American testing procedures led to development of different testing methods by David Wechsler. • Wechsler's test used several subtests with 2 improvements: • a)some subtests had little or no verbal content and reduced the dependence on particular cultural knowledge; and-- • b)allowed development of a profile describing subtest scores and computing more than one IQ score. • Wechsler's test can be used to describe strengths and weaknesses in intelligence. • Wechsler's test acknowledges measuring intelligence with one score can be misleading. 5. What are important features of modern IQ tests? • may answer as part of general extra credit assignment 6. How are IQ tests scored? • may answer as part of GEC Bonus assignment. 7. What are principles of psychological testing? • tests are systematic procedures for observing behavior in a standard situation and • describing it with the help of a numerical scale or system of categories. • Three advantages to using tests: • a)administration, scoring, and interpretation are standardized; • b)tests use quantifiable scores so scores summarize test performance and allow the development of norms; • c)tests are economical and efficient and may be administered to many people in less time with less cost. • Desirable characteristics tests include reliability and validity. • Both reliability and validity can be expressed in the form of a correlation coefficient. 8. What are important features of reliability? • Results are repeatable and stable with increased reliability. • More reliable test is less susceptible to insignificant or random influences on the test taker or the test environment. • To estimate reliability: obtain 2 sets of scores on the same test for the same people; • compute the correlation between the 2 sets of scores. • If correlation is high and positive (+.80 or higher), the test is said to be reliable. -- • Ways of obtaining the two sets of scores: a)test-retest by giving the same test to the same people on two different occasions; • b)alternate form, which involves using two forms of the same test using equivalent questions; • -- • c)split-half, • involves using one test, administered once, and • dividing the questions into comparable halves, • scoring each half separately • calculating the correlation between the two scores. 9.What are important features of validity? • Validity is degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure. • Validity depends on how the test is used. • Validity is not high or low in an absolute sense. • There are 3 basic approaches to measuring validity: • a)content validity tells how much a test's content covers a representative sample of the domain to be measured; • b) construct validity is the extent to which scores on a test behave in accord with a theory about the trait or construct of interest; -- • c)criterion-related validity is the extent to which test scores correlate with • another direct, independent measure of a trait or construct. • If goal of test is to predict future behavior, • criterion is a measure of future performance. • Criterion-related validity is similar to predictive validity. • 10. How are IQ tests evaluated? May be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment • 11. How are IQ scores affected by differences in innate or inherited ability and the environment? May be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment 12. What conditions are effective in increasing IQ scores? • • • • • Conditions for increasing IQ scores include rewards for progress, encouragement of effort, creating expectation of success, training and coaching for improving memory, vocabulary, and problem solving. • One well-known attempt at increasing IQ scores is the Head Start Project. • Program resulted in improved health, academic skills, intellectual skills. • • • • • • Program provides moderate structure, orderly physical setting, predictable schedule, high quality educational materials, teachers who provide regular opportunities for learning. -- • Lasting gains from the Head Start Project • disappeared or weakened at times, • usually from decreased motivation rather than decreased ability. • Even if an IQ score decreases, academic performance usually stays stable. -- • Primary benefits from Project head Start include • positive effect on attitudes toward school • which may reduce the chance of a student being held back in school or • placed in special education or remedial classes. 13. What influences group differences in IQ scores? • Pitfalls in comparing group performance on IQ tests. • Group scores do not tell about individuals. • Inherited characteristics are not necessarily fixed or unchanging. • Environmental influences are not necessarily always flexible or changeable. • -- • Socioeconomic level is related to measured intelligence • individuals from families with higher levels of education and income usually score higher on IQ tests than those from families with lower levels of education and income. • -- • Three factors may be influencing IQ scores: • a)parents' jobs and socioeconomic status are related to their own intellectual levels; • b)parent's jobs and education level may determine their income; • c)children from families receiving middle and upper level incomes may show higher motivation to succeed and do well in school. • 14. What are important features of using IQ scores in the classroom? May be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment. • 15. What is the psychometric approach to assessing mental abilities? May be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment. • 16. What is the information-processing approach to studying intelligence? May be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment. • 17. What is the triarchical theory of intelligence? May be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment. 18. What are factors important in understanding and treating mental retardation? • The definition of mental retardation includes • measured IQ below 70, • deficiency in adaptive living skills. • Causes of mental retardation include: • a)Down Syndrome (genetic defect involving having an extra chromosome); • b)environmental conditions or traumas; • c) birth trauma; • d) drug use my mother. • Familial retardation occurs when no specific genetic or environmental cause can be pinpointed. • Most familial retardation results when person is from family at low socioeconomic levels (low education and income). • Individuals displaying familial retardation are more likely to have retarded relatives. What cognitive deficits are displayed by individuals with mental retardation? • a) perform certain mental operations more slowly; • b) know fewer facts about the world; • c) not effective at using mental strategies useful in learning and problem solving. • Why do cognitive deficiencies exist? • a)problems with metamemory or knowing how memory works; • b) problems with metacognition of knowing what strategies to use, when to use them, and how to use them in new situations to gain new specific information for solving problems. • The most limiting problem is with metacognition. • useful to help individuals with these problems learn more effective strategies: • a)how to evaluate appropriateness of strategies; • b) monitoring success and failure of strategies; - • c) making the individual aware that effort and effective strategies pay off. • Intellectual skills and abilities of individuals with below average measured intelligence can be increased. • Research suggests more emphasis on increased confidence, motivation, emotional well-being, and social confidence helpful. 19. What are types of multiple forms of intelligence? • Some individuals with below average measured intelligence show high ability in narrowly defined skills. • Multiple forms of intelligence studied by Gardner, • looked at how we learn and use symbol systems -- • asked whether the same intelligence is used by all people. • Gardner proposes a small number of types of intelligence involving problem-solving skills. • These forms of intelligence include a)linguistic; • b) logical-mathematical; • c)spatial; • d) musical, • e) body-kinesthetic; • f) personal; • g) interpersonal. • Gardner's theory highlights abilities not usually measured by traditional IQ tests • possibly or probably important in human activity. 20. What are important features of creativity and creative thinking? • produces novel and effective solutions to problems and challenges. • tested by measures of divergent thinking which involves the ability to generate many possible solutions to problems. • tests are scored by counting the number of different and practical responses or extent of differences from those of most test takers. • at least three components of creativity: • a)expertise directly tied to what is learned; • b)creative skills, including persisting at problem solving, divergent thinking, breaking mental sets, taking risks; • c)motivation to pursue creative activity for internal reasons and rewards. • External rewards may decrease creativity. • influences on creativity displayed by an individual: • a) not inherited and is affected by the environment; • b) not necessary to be strange or have a mental disorder to be creative; • c)possible personality traits associated with creativity - • being independent, • using intuitive thinking; • having high self-acceptance and energy; • d)modest correlation with intelligence: (+.10 to +.30). • Most IQ tests- • measure convergent thinking • use knowledge and logic to narrow the number of possible solutions. • Creativity - • requires divergent thinking appropriate for a situation or problem. • • • • • Person using creative thinking- has a connection to reality, Understands social needs, learns from experience, uses knowledge how to interact with other people Are there any questions about cognitive abilities?