CHAPTER 6, 7, 10 NOTES
EXAM 2 NOTES
INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY
CHAPTER 6 - LEARNING
• 1. WHAT IS CLASSICAL CONDITIONING? HOW IS
IT RELATED TO LEARNING?
• Learning is any relatively permanent change in
behavior or mental processes as a result of
experience.
• How do individuals learn?
• By identifying relationships between events and
noting regularity in the environment.
• Habituation is the fading of a response to a
stimulus and can be used as an indicator of
learning.
• Classical conditioning occurs when a neutral
stimulus is paired with a stimulus triggering a
natural reflex until the neutral stimulus also
triggers the reflex response.
• Classical conditioning has 3 phases:
(1)identifying a reflex and a neutral stimulus
you are interested in;
• (2) pairing the reflex and the neutral stimulus;
• (3)responding with the reflex response to the
previously neutral stimulus alone.
2. HOW CAN INDIVIDUALS LEARN
FEAR?
• The strength and ease of learning (classical
conditioning) depends on the nature of the CS
and the UCS and
• how they are associated.
3. HOW DOES STIMULUS INTENSITY
AFFECT CONDITIONING OR LEARNING?
• Stimulus intensity is a characteristic of the
UCS;
• conditioning or learning happens more quickly
and easily if the UCS is stronger and
• if the number of associations is increased.
• Delayed conditioning is most effective and is
accomplished by presenting the CS first and
• then presenting the UCS, and
• terminating both at the same time.
• In this method, the CS becomes a reliable
predictor of the UCS.
4. WHAT IS TASTE AVERSION LEARNING? HOW
IS IT RELATED TO CLASSICAL CONDITIONING?
• Learning to avoid eating or drinking something
because of an unpleasant association to the
taste.
• Taste aversion or avoidance is an example of
classical conditioning.
5. HOW DOES BIOLOGICAL PREPAREDNESS
AFFECT CONDITIONING?
• Some responses learned more quickly and
easily than others when individuals are
biologically prepared to learn them.
• Example: taste aversion may be learned
because it is dangerous to survival to eat a
harmful substance.
• Examples include: we are more likely to learn
to fear dogs, snakes, and spiders than doors
and pencils.
6. HOW DOES PREDICTIVE VALUE AFFECT
CONDITIONING?
• Predictive value = ability of the CS to reliably
predict or signal the UCS.
• Examples: rats became ill every time they
drank the plastic-tasting water.
• Cancer patients felt nauseated only when they
ate a particular flavor of ice cream.
7. WHAT IS LEARNED IN CLASSICAL
CONDITIONING?
• We learn to produce an adaptive, automatic
response when the CS or previously neutral
stimulus reliably predicts an important event.
8. WHAT ARE THREE ASPECTS OF CLASSICAL
CONDITIONING OVER TIME?
• (a) stimulus generalization: responding to in a
similar way to events, objects, or individuals that
are similar but not identical to the original CS
• (b) stimulus discrimination: responding
differently to events, objects, or individuals who
are similar but not identical to the original CS.
• (c) extinction: gradual disappearance of CR by
eliminating the association between the CS and
the UCS.
9. WHAT ARE TWO EXAMPLES OF
CONDITIONING ?
• (a) phobias and anxiety:
• phobias are strong fears of objects or
situations that are not objectively dangerous
or that are less dangerous than a person's
response would suggest.
• Anxiety is an intense fear response that
usually occurs when an individual experiences
conflict or threat. --
• (b) promoting health and treating illness:
systematic desensitization is a procedure that
associates a new response such as relaxation
with a feared stimulus.
• Medical applications have included treating
allergies and hay fever by classically
conditioning responses of the immune system.
10. WHAT ARE INSTRUMENTAL
AND OPERANT CONDITIONING?
• Instrumental conditioning occurs
when responses are learned and repeated
that produce some rewarding or desired
effect.
• These forms of learning are based on the law
of effect
• that states that a response made in the
presence of a stimulus and followed by a
reward is more likely to occur the next time
the stimulus is present.
• Operant conditioning is the process of
learning responses as a result of particular
consequences (such as reinforcement or lack
of reinforcement).
11. WHAT ARE THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF
OPERANT CONDITIONING?
• Operant: a response that operates or has an effect on
the environment.
• Reinforcer or reinforcement: event or object that
increases the probability or likelihood that a response
will occur.
• May be positive or negative.
• Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the
likelihood of a response occurring again.
• Positive reinforcers strengthen responses by being
present and
• negative reinforcers strengthen responses by being
taken away or avoided.
• Superstitious behavior results from accidental
reinforcement where reward follows behavior
through luck or coincidence.
• Extinction is the process of weakening
behavior by not reinforcing it.
• Discriminative stimuli are objects, events, or
experiences that signal whether
reinforcement is likely to occur.
• --
• Stimulus control is available through
discriminative stimuli and
• allows an individual to learn which behaviors
are appropriate and which are not.
• Stimulus generalization occurs when we give a
similar response to a similar but not identical
stimulus to the original stimulus.
• Stimulus discrimination occurs when we give a
different response to a similar but not
identical stimulus.
12. HOW DOES SHAPING RELATE TO FORMING AND
STRENGTHENING OPERANT BEHAVIORS?
• Shaping:
• reinforcing successive approximations or
responses that are successively more similar
to the desired response.
• Shaping is useful because often the exact,
desired response does not occur
spontaneously.
13. HOW DO DELAY AND SIZE OF REINFORCEMENT
AFFECT OPERANT CONDITIONING?
• Learning occurs faster if
• (a) reinforcement delay is short and
• (b) reinforcement size is large.
14. HOW DO SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
AFFECT OPERANT CONDITIONING?
• Continuous reinforcement is delivered every
time the response occurs.
• Partial reinforcement occurs only part of the
time.
• Partial reinforcement occurs in 4 basic types:
• (a)fixed ratio,
• (b)variable ratio,
• (c)fixed interval, and
• (d)variable interval. --
• There are three basic response patterns:
• (a) fixed ratio and variable ratio produce high
rates of behavior;
• (b)fixed interval produces a scalloped effect in
which response rates drops immediately after
reinforcement and increases gradually as the
time approaches for the next reinforcement; -
• (c) variable interval produces a slow, steady
rate of responding because of unpredictable
timing of reinforcement.
15. HOW DO SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
AFFECT EXTINCTION OF OPERANT BEHAVIOR?
• Behavior learned under partial reinforcement
schedules is more difficult to extinguish than
behavior learned under continuous
reinforcement.
• Examples: (a) a slot machine gives partial
reinforcement when it operates correctly ;
• (b) a vending machine gives continuous
reinforcement when the machine operates
correctly.
16. WHAT EVENTS CAN ACT AS REWARDS AND
MOTIVATE LEARNING?
• Any object, event, or situation or individual can
act as a reinforcer
• if paired with another object, event, situation, or
individual that is already reinforcing.
• An important distinction is between primary and
secondary reinforcers.
• Primary reinforcers are naturally reinforcing and
rewarding.
• Examples of primary reinforcers are pleasurable
touch, food, water, pain, and air.
• Secondary reinforcers are learned, including
money, grades, and praise.
• Secondary reinforcers are neutral at first and
later acquire reinforcing characteristics
through associations with primary reinforcers.
--
• The Premack principle is based on the idea of
a hierarchy of behavioral preference,
• with items ranked from most to least
reinforcing or desirable.
• Any highly frequent activity, object, event, or
situation can come to reinforce or strengthen
a less frequent behavior.
17. WHAT IS NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT AND
HOW DOES IT AFFECT LEARNING?
• Negative reinforcement is escaping or avoiding a
unpleasant event, object, or experience.
• Effects have been studied using escape and
avoidance conditioning.
• Avoidance occurs when we learn to avoid or
prevent exposure to an unpleasant situation or
aversive reinforcer.
• Escape occurs when we learn to end an
unpleasant or aversive reinforcer. --
• Escape or avoidance behavior is a difficult
habit to break
• because of reduced fear, anxiety, or other
unpleasant emotion associated with the
escape or avoidant behavior.
18. WHAT IS PUNISHMENT AND HOW
DOES IT AFFECT LEARNING?
• Punishment occurs when we experience an
unpleasant emotion, event, or situation.
• Effect of punishment is to decrease the
likelihood of a response occurring
immediately prior to experiencing the
punishment.
• Punishment occurs as the presence of an
unpleasant event or experience or the ending
of a pleasant event or experience.
19. HOW CAN WE BE MORE LIKELY
TO USE PUNISHMENT WISELY?
• Realize and be aware of the drawbacks:
• (a)can produce undesirable side effects;
• (b)often ineffective unless occurring
immediately after the undesirable behavior;
• (c) often results in aggressive responses; --
• (d) often effective only in specific situations;
• (e) may produce misunderstanding.
• Realize and use positive guidelines:
• (a) specify why punishment is used and
distinguish between behavior and being
punished and the person to prevent unhealthy
fear and anger; --
• (b) should be immediate and severe enough
to be effective;
• (c) identify and positively reinforce more
desirable responses.
20. WHAT ARE SOME EXAMPLES
OF OPERANT CONDITIONING?
• (a) treating problem behavior, using
discriminative stimuli such as overeating,
smoking, and other substance abuse;
• --
• (b) learned helplessness, which is the
tendency to give up efforts to control or
influence the environment after frequent
failure experiences; -
• believing that nothing you can do will change
your life or influence your destiny can have
compelling influence
• you may stop acting to improve the situation
and endure painful situations passively. -
• (c) improving education:
• successful strategies include operant
conditioning, -
• includes positively reinforcing desirable
behavior,
• Giving immediate feedback regarding
mistakes. -
• Emphasize positive reinforcement, group
reinforcement, and family involvement
• Example using other animals:
• http://www.youtube.com/v/fcdYIL_jy-8
• results in greater success than interventions
not using these components.
21. WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM THE BOBO STUDIES?
• In general that observational learning can
occur.
• Specifically that:
• (a) those who observed adults being rewarded
for aggression showed the most aggressive
behavior more quickly;
• (b) those who observed the adults being
punished for aggressive behavior showed the
least aggressive behavior; --
• (c) those who observed adults who were
neither rewarded nor punished for aggressive
behavior
• learned and imitated the aggressive behavior
and demonstrated observational learning.
22. WHAT IS OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING AND WHAT
ARE 4 REQUIREMENTS FOR THIS TYPE OF LEARNING?
• (a) attention: focus reasonably close
awareness of the behavior;
• (b) retention - remember what you observe;
• (c) physical ability to produce the behavior physically capable of reproducing the
behavior;
• (d) motivation -desire or reason to perform
the behavior.
CHAPTER 7 MEMORY
1. WHAT ARE THREE TYPES OF MEMORY
DISCUSSED IN THE TEXT?
• (a) episodic: memory for specific events
occurring while you were present.
• (b) semantic: generalized knowledge with no
specific event information associated.
• (c) procedural: skill memory, including how to
do things.
2. WHAT ARE THREE BASIC
MEMORY PROCESSES?
• (a) encoding: put information into memory
using a form the brain and nervous system can
use. can be based on any sensory ability, or
meaning.
• (b) storage: maintaining information in
memory over time.
• (c) retrieval: find information in memory and
bring it into conscious awareness.
3. WHAT ARE THREE STAGES OF
MEMORY?
• (a) sensory: information from the senses held in
sensory registers for a second or less;
• may be attended to, analyzed, encoded as a
meaningful pattern;
• (b) short term: once perceived, information
enters this stage; if nothing else occurs,
information disappears (fades) within 20-30
seconds.
• c) long-term: if further processing occurs, an
unlimited information can remain in memory
indefinitely.
4. WHAT ARE PROPERTIES OF
SENSORY MEMORY?
• (a) icons: mental representations of visual
images;
• usually last about one second or less.
• (b) iconic memory: sensory register holding
icons;
• allows smooth visual scanning;
• (c) echoes: mental representations of auditory
or sound-based images.
• (d) echoic memory: sensory register for
echoes or auditory sensations.
• Perception transfers sensory impressions
(icons and echoes) to short term memory.
5. HOW IS INFORMATION ENCODED INTO
SENSORY MEMORY?
•
•
•
•
may be encoded into
visual,
auditory, or
tactile images.
6. HOW IS INFORMATION STORED
IN SHORT TERM MEMORY?
• Capacity of short-term memory is 5-9 items
with an average of 7.
• Items can be individual units or chunks of
information, each containing several units.
7. WHAT IS THE POWER OF
CHUNKING?
• Can remember a larger amount of information
overall by grouping related items of
information into chunks or categories of
information.
8. HOW CAN CHUNKING BE USED TO INTEGRATE SHORT TERM
MEMORY AND LONG TERM MEMORY?
• chunking requires integrating information in
short term memory (present consciousness
and active working memory) with
• information in long-term memory (passive
storage is like a library) and
• organizing information in terms of what we
already know
9. WHAT ARE THE DURATION AND CAPACITY OF SENSORY,
SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM MEMORY?
•
• Sensory
duration (length of time);
< 1 second -2 seconds
• short-term
20-30 sec
• long-term
indefinite
capacity (# items)
1-2 items
5-9 items; average=7
indefinite
10. WHAT ARE 2 CAUSES OF FORGETTING?
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THEM?
• (a) decay: mental representation disappears
gradually.
• (b) interference: new information displaces
information already in memory.
• 12. HOW ACCURATE IS EYEWITNESS
TESTIMONY?
• may be completed as part of GEC bonus
assignment.
• 13. WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
AND SIMILARITIES SHARED BY
ANTEROGRADE AND RETROGRADE
AMNESIA?
• may be completed as part of GEC Bonus
assignment.
• 14. EXPLAIN REASONS WHY FORGOTTEN
MEMORIES MAY OR MAY NOT REMAIN IN
THE SUBCONSCIOUS MIND.
• may be completed as part of GEC Bonus
assignment.
15. HOW DO REHEARSAL AND LEVELS OF
PROCESSING AFFECT LONG TERM MEMORY?
• There are two basic types of rehearsal:
• (a) maintenance - repeating items over and over;
shallow processing; keeps information in shortterm memory; ineffective for long-term memory.
• (b) elaborative - thinking about how new material
relates to material already in long-term memory;
deeper processing than maintenance.
• Key to difference: degree or depth
of processing to which incoming information
is processed;
• the more you think about information and
organize new information and relate it to
existing knowledge, the deeper and more
effective the processing.
• --
• Memory more strongly influenced internal
than external factors.
• Internal factors include how you think about
the information and relate it to existing
knowledge as well as
• noticing distinctive features or attributes that
are noticeably different from what you would
expect. ---
•
•
•
•
External factors include
how information is displayed,
amount of information, and
how long you are exposed to the information.
16. HOW IS SEMANTIC CODING RELATED TO
LONG TERM MEMORY?
• Semantic coding focuses on underlying
meaning or general meaning rather than
specific details;
• counterfeiters rely on generality of semantic
visual coding of information such as on the
face of a coin.
17. HOW IS VISUAL CODING RELATED TO LONG
TERM MEMORY?
• Possible to encode visual images in long term
memory because pictures have many
distinctive features likely to attract attention;
• visual images may be represented by both
visual and semantic codes.
• --
•
•
•
•
Eidetic memory:
form of photographic memory;
automatic;
long term vivid images of observed
information;
• more common in children.
• 18. WHAT IS THE COURSE OF FORGETTING IN
LONG-TERM MEMORY? may be completed as
part of GEC Bonus assignment.
• 19. WHAT RESEARCH RESULTS SUGGEST AS THE
MAIN CAUSE OF FORGETTING IN LONG-TERM
MEMORY? may be completed part of GEC Bonus
assignment.
• 20. HOW DO DURATION AND CAPACITY OF
MEMORY RELATE TO LONG-TERM MEMORY AND
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBCONSCIOUS MIND? may
be completed part of GEC Bonus assignment.
21. WHAT ARE FORMS OF REPRESENTATION AS THEY
RELATE TO LONG TERM MEMORY AND RETRIEVAL?
• Information usually represented in long-term
memory as bundles of features.
• Process of matching stored features to those
of new information allows recognition.
• Unique bundles of features are the raw
material of thinking.
• --
• Retrieval signals or cues such as words,
phrases, letters, or pictures assist in the
recovery of information from long-term
memory.
• Generally, recognition easier than recall.
• Most effective cues for retrieval tap
information encoded at the time of learning. --
• Best long-term memory retrieval cues evoke
meaning of stored information.
• Example, something heavy cues lifting;
• make nice sounds cues tuned.
22. HOW DO CONTEXT AND STATE DEPENDENCE
AFFECT RETRIEVAL IN LONG TERM MEMORY?
• Generally easier to remember information if you
recall it in the same environment and state of
mind previously associated with the information.
• Tend to encode features of the surrounding
environment as well as emotions that serve as
retrieval cues.
• Explains why we often perform better on
regularly scheduled tests rather than make-up
tests.
23. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF EMOTION IN LONG
TERM MEMORY RETRIEVAL?
• Often a match between emotional state and
informational content to be learned.
• Positive emotions tend to make memory easier.
• Negative emotions tend to interfere with
memory.
• Happy mood usually results in remembering
more pleasant events.
• Unhappy mood usually results in remembering
more unpleasant events.
• --
• Flashbulb memories: intense emotion
experiences produce vivid, detailed, longlasting memories (Challenger, JFK, MLK, World
Trade Center, Pentagon)
• Why? Remembered event has many
consequences for a person's life.
• May think about the event and form a
network of associations with other knowledge
areas.
• Motivated forgetting: effect of negative
emotion on memory often is such that we are
motivated to forget or distort memory of
negative events.
• May dwell on positive memories as a defense
mechanism.
• May not attend to negative aspects of events
with result information is not encoded in a
detailed way.
24. HOW DOES RETRIEVING INCOMPLETE
KNOWLEDGE RELATE TO LONG TERM MEMORY
RETRIEVAL?
• If cannot recall information, many times can
recognize the information.
• Tip of the tongue phenomenon: if we cannot
recall the definition of a word, often we can
identify particular features of the word such as
number of syllables, beginning or ending letters,
or a rhyming word.
• Often recall some of the features but not enough
to recall or identify the word completely.
• Author of Iliad and Odyssey?
• Bart Simpson’s dad’s name?
27. WHAT ARE METAMEMORY AND MNEMONICS?
HOW CAN THEY BE USED TO IMPROVE MEMORY?
• Metamemory:
• knowledge about memory or how memory
works;
• consists of 3 types of knowledge:
• (a) understanding the abilities and limitations of
your own memory;
• (b) knowledge of different types of memory
tasks, such as recall and recognition;
• (c) knowledge of what types of strategies are
effective in remembering new information.
• Mnemonics:
• strategies for putting new information in an
organized context and form to remember
more effectively.
•
•
•
•
Methods:
(a) verbal organization –
HOMES = names of Great Lakes;
Every Good Boy Does Fine = notes on the
piano;
• On Old Olympus - Towering Tops A Finn And
German Viewed Some Hops = names of
cranial nerves. --
• (b)loci - think of familiar geographical
locations;
• imagine items to be remembered in each
location using novel and vivid images.
• (c) key-word or peg-word: remember 1-bun, 2shoe, 3-tree, etc. and
• associate items to be remembered with
familiar images associated with the numbers.
• Guidelines for studying:
• (a) distributed practice is more effective than
cramming.
• (b) create a context to organize and store
information.
• (c) slow down if reading difficult material. --
• (d) think about the information and elaborate
it using a meaningful and organized context.
• (e) make sure you understand the material
you are reading by being able to explain it to
someone else.
• (f) use SQRRR/PQRST reading strategies. --
• (g) lecture notes - more is not necessarily
better;
• think about what you are hearing and
recording;
• best to think about what you observe;
• create associations with other more familiar
ideas and materials; --
• summarize major ideas and points;
• review as soon as possible;
• make outlines or create concept maps and
think about how the information is
interrelated.
28. WHERE AND HOW ARE
MEMORIES STORED?
• may be completed as part of GEC Bonus
assignment
INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW
• MENTAL ABILITIES - CHAPTER 10
1. What is mental ability?
•
•
•
•
•
•
capacity to perform higher mental processes
of reasoning,
remembering,
understanding,
problem solving, and
decision making
2. What is intelligence?
• according to Sternberg:
• possession of knowledge;
• ability to use information processing to reason
about the world,
• ability to use reasoning to adapt to different
environments.
3. How was the Stanford-Binet
Intelligence Test developed?
• Alfred Binet set out to identify children who
might need special instruction in school;
• Made two assumptions:
• a)intelligence is involved in many thinking and
reasoning activities so measurement of
intelligence should involve such reasoning
activities;
• b)intelligence increases with age, so if a person
scores higher than a person his own age, that
person would be mentally older and more
intelligent;
• Binet developed a series of age-graded tasks
and determined the average number of
questions answered correctly for each age
group;
• Defined average number as a "mental age;"
• Would then be possible to compare mental
age with chronological age to determine if a
person were average, below average, or above
average. --
• If mental age (MA) = chronological age (CA),
the person could be described as having
normal or average intelligence;
• if MA greater than CA, the person could be
described as having advanced intelligence;
• if a person’s CA were less than his MA, he
could be described as having retarded
intelligence.
• --
• Binet's test was tool to find out which
children needed help in school.
• Binet assumed intelligence was not a fixed or
unchanging trait.
4. How was American intelligence testing different
from Alfred Binet's testing?
• Lewis Terman, at Stanford University in California,
developed an American English version of Binet's
test.
• Terman and colleagues revised the scoring so that
the IQ or intelligence quotient was defined as MA
divided by CA multiplied by 100.
• Idea of IQ has been related to intelligence tests so
that any test used to measure intelligence on an
objective, standardized scale can be described as
an intelligence test.
• -
• American test, called the Stanford-Binet,
• Was based on the belief
• That intelligence is a fixed or unchanging trait
that is mostly inherited,
• That different groups have different amounts
of intelligence, --
• That IQ tests could pinpoint which people did
and did not have genes for suitable
intellectual levels.
• American version of Binet's test was misused.
• Problems in the American testing procedures
led to development of different testing
methods by David Wechsler.
• Wechsler's test used several subtests with 2
improvements:
• a)some subtests had little or no verbal content
and reduced the dependence on particular
cultural knowledge; and--
• b)allowed development of a profile describing
subtest scores and computing more than one
IQ score.
• Wechsler's test can be used to describe
strengths and weaknesses in intelligence.
• Wechsler's test acknowledges measuring
intelligence with one score can be misleading.
5. What are important features of
modern IQ tests?
• may answer as part of general extra credit
assignment
6. How are IQ tests scored?
• may answer as part of GEC Bonus assignment.
7. What are principles of
psychological testing?
• tests are systematic procedures for observing behavior in a
standard situation and
• describing it with the help of a numerical scale or system of
categories.
• Three advantages to using tests:
• a)administration, scoring, and interpretation are
standardized;
• b)tests use quantifiable scores so scores summarize test
performance and allow the development of norms;
• c)tests are economical and efficient and may be
administered to many people in less time with less cost.
• Desirable characteristics tests include
reliability and validity.
• Both reliability and validity can be expressed
in the form of a correlation coefficient.
8. What are important features of
reliability?
• Results are repeatable and stable with increased
reliability.
• More reliable test is less susceptible to
insignificant or random influences on the test
taker or the test environment.
• To estimate reliability: obtain 2 sets of scores on
the same test for the same people;
• compute the correlation between the 2 sets of
scores.
• If correlation is high and positive (+.80 or higher),
the test is said to be reliable. --
• Ways of obtaining the two sets of scores:
a)test-retest by giving the same test to the
same people on two different occasions;
• b)alternate form, which involves using two
forms of the same test using equivalent
questions;
• --
• c)split-half,
• involves using one test, administered once,
and
• dividing the questions into comparable halves,
• scoring each half separately
• calculating the correlation between the two
scores.
9.What are important features of
validity?
• Validity is degree to which a test measures
what it is supposed to measure.
• Validity depends on how the test is used.
• Validity is not high or low in an absolute
sense.
• There are 3 basic approaches to measuring
validity:
• a)content validity tells how much a test's
content covers a representative sample of the
domain to be measured;
• b) construct validity is the extent to which
scores on a test behave in accord with a
theory about the trait or construct of interest;
--
• c)criterion-related validity is the extent to
which test scores correlate with
• another direct, independent measure of a
trait or construct.
• If goal of test is to predict future behavior,
• criterion is a measure of future performance.
• Criterion-related validity is similar to
predictive validity.
• 10. How are IQ tests evaluated? May be
completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment
• 11. How are IQ scores affected by differences
in innate or inherited ability and the
environment? May be completed as part of
GEC Bonus assignment
12. What conditions are effective
in increasing IQ scores?
•
•
•
•
•
Conditions for increasing IQ scores include
rewards for progress,
encouragement of effort,
creating expectation of success,
training and coaching for improving memory,
vocabulary, and problem solving.
• One well-known attempt at increasing IQ
scores is the Head Start Project.
• Program resulted in improved health,
academic skills, intellectual skills.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Program provides
moderate structure,
orderly physical setting,
predictable schedule,
high quality educational materials,
teachers who provide regular opportunities
for learning. --
• Lasting gains from the Head Start Project
• disappeared or weakened at times,
• usually from decreased motivation rather than
decreased ability.
• Even if an IQ score decreases, academic
performance usually stays stable. --
• Primary benefits from Project head Start
include
• positive effect on attitudes toward school
• which may reduce the chance of a student
being held back in school or
• placed in special education or remedial
classes.
13. What influences group
differences in IQ scores?
• Pitfalls in comparing group performance on IQ
tests.
• Group scores do not tell about individuals.
• Inherited characteristics are not necessarily
fixed or unchanging.
• Environmental influences are not necessarily
always flexible or changeable.
• --
• Socioeconomic level is related to measured
intelligence
• individuals from families with higher levels of
education and income usually score higher on
IQ tests than those from families with lower
levels of education and income.
• --
• Three factors may be influencing IQ scores:
• a)parents' jobs and socioeconomic status are
related to their own intellectual levels;
• b)parent's jobs and education level may
determine their income;
• c)children from families receiving middle and
upper level incomes may show higher
motivation to succeed and do well in school.
• 14. What are important features of using IQ scores in
the classroom? May be completed as part of GEC
Bonus assignment.
• 15. What is the psychometric approach to assessing
mental abilities? May be completed as part of GEC
Bonus assignment.
• 16. What is the information-processing approach to
studying intelligence? May be completed as part of
GEC Bonus assignment.
• 17. What is the triarchical theory of intelligence? May
be completed as part of GEC Bonus assignment.
18. What are factors important in understanding and
treating mental retardation?
• The definition of mental retardation includes
• measured IQ below 70,
• deficiency in adaptive living skills.
• Causes of mental retardation include:
• a)Down Syndrome (genetic defect involving
having an extra chromosome);
• b)environmental conditions or traumas;
• c) birth trauma;
• d) drug use my mother.
• Familial retardation occurs when no specific
genetic or environmental cause can be
pinpointed.
• Most familial retardation results when person
is from family at low socioeconomic levels
(low education and income).
• Individuals displaying familial retardation are
more likely to have retarded relatives.
What cognitive deficits are displayed by
individuals with mental retardation?
• a) perform certain mental operations more
slowly;
• b) know fewer facts about the world;
• c) not effective at using mental strategies
useful in learning and problem solving.
• Why do cognitive deficiencies exist?
• a)problems with metamemory or knowing
how memory works;
• b) problems with metacognition of knowing
what strategies to use, when to use them, and
how to use them in new situations to gain
new specific information for solving problems.
• The most limiting problem is with
metacognition.
• useful to help individuals with these problems
learn more effective strategies:
• a)how to evaluate appropriateness of
strategies;
• b) monitoring success and failure of strategies;
-
• c) making the individual aware that effort and
effective strategies pay off.
• Intellectual skills and abilities of individuals
with below average measured intelligence can
be increased.
• Research suggests more emphasis on
increased confidence, motivation, emotional
well-being, and social confidence helpful.
19. What are types of multiple
forms of intelligence?
• Some individuals with below average
measured intelligence show high ability in
narrowly defined skills.
• Multiple forms of intelligence studied by
Gardner,
• looked at how we learn and use symbol
systems --
• asked whether the same intelligence is used
by all people.
• Gardner proposes a small number of types of
intelligence involving problem-solving skills.
• These forms of intelligence include
a)linguistic;
• b) logical-mathematical;
• c)spatial;
• d) musical,
• e) body-kinesthetic;
• f) personal;
• g) interpersonal.
• Gardner's theory highlights abilities not
usually measured by traditional IQ tests
• possibly or probably important in human
activity.
20. What are important features of
creativity and creative thinking?
• produces novel and effective solutions to
problems and challenges.
• tested by measures of divergent thinking
which involves the ability to generate many
possible solutions to problems.
• tests are scored by counting the number of
different and practical responses or extent of
differences from those of most test takers.
• at least three components of creativity:
• a)expertise directly tied to what is learned;
• b)creative skills, including persisting at
problem solving, divergent thinking, breaking
mental sets, taking risks;
• c)motivation to pursue creative activity for
internal reasons and rewards.
• External rewards may decrease creativity.
• influences on creativity displayed by an
individual:
• a) not inherited and is affected by the
environment;
• b) not necessary to be strange or have a
mental disorder to be creative;
• c)possible personality traits associated with
creativity -
• being independent,
• using intuitive thinking;
• having high self-acceptance and energy;
• d)modest correlation with intelligence: (+.10
to +.30).
• Most IQ tests-
• measure convergent thinking
• use knowledge and logic to narrow the
number of possible solutions.
• Creativity -
• requires divergent thinking appropriate for a
situation or problem.
•
•
•
•
•
Person using creative thinking-
has a connection to reality,
Understands social needs,
learns from experience,
uses knowledge how to interact with other
people
Are there any questions about
cognitive abilities?
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Introductory Psychology Exam 2 Notes