Overview of Evidence-Based Practice 1 Department of Social Work Roberts Wesleyan College What is the EBP Process? 2 EBP process involves 5 steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Converting the need for information into an answerable question Locating the best available evidence with which to answer that question Critically appraising that evidence for its validity, impact, and applicability Integrating the critical appraisal with professional expertise, and with the client’s values and preferences Evaluating effectiveness and efficiency in executing Steps 1 to 4 (Schlonsky & Gibbs, 2004) Step 1: Answerable COPES Questions 3 ClientOriented Practical EvidenceSearch (Gibbs, 2003) The COPES question is one that contains these characteristics “Among adult criminal offenders on probation, will a group cognitive intervention program compared to no such program result in a lower recidivism (reoffense) rate?” Step 2: Locating the Best Evidence 4 EBP searching locates the best evidence in electronic databases. “The essence of searching involves learning how to clarify terms in a well-built COPES question that will effectively mark documents in an electronic database” (p. 91). Search terms are systematically developed from the COPES question. The choice of MOLES (methodology-oriented locators for an evidence search) helps refine the search and find only the most relevant evidence. Examples of MOLES include the terms random*, controlled clinical trial*, control group*, survey, and systematic review*. (Gibbs, 2003) Step 3: Evaluation of Research Evidence 5 Research evidence may include: Individual outcome studies, program evaluations, metaanalyses, systematic reviews, case studies….and not all evidence is created equal. This step involves making decisions about the quality of the evidence uncovered in the search. There are different tools that are available to help guide the process of reading and judging the quality of research evidence. Some include: Quality Study Rating Form (QSRF) Client Assessment and Risk (CARE) Form Multiple Evaluations for Treatment Assessment Form (META) (Columbia University, 2005) Step 4: Integrating Research With Practice 6 Integration or applying the research to the practice situation is the next step. In concrete terms, the practitioner must: Identify implementation information about the intervention Assess the fit between intervention and the client system (values, preferences, expectations, and challenges) Assess the fit between intervention and the professional’s experience and skill (practice experience) Communicate with the client system and key stakeholders Collaboratively choose a path Plan how to address key implementation factors Evaluate the process and outcomes (Danya International, 2008) Step 5: Evaluation in EBP 7 The evaluation of practice decision-making is an essential component to evidence-based practice in social work. Traditional research methods/designs are applied in this step to evaluate the effectiveness of the EBP interventions. Thorough program evaluation can be conducted through a single system design or evaluation approaches that can systematically evaluate interventions implemented with more than one client by one or more practitioners. (Danya International, 2008) References 8 Columbia University. (2005). BEST Training, Module 7: Evaluating the Evidence. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/cu/musher/ Website/Website/EBP_OnlineTraining_Mod7.htm Danya International. (2008). Research and empirical applications for curriculum enhancements in social work. Silver Spring, MD: Author. Gibbs. L. (2003). Evidence-based practice for the helping professions: A practical guide with integrated multimedia. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning. Shlonsky, A., & Gibbs, L. (2004). Will the real evidence-based practice please stand up? Teaching the process of evidencebased practice to the helping professions. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 4, 137-153.