The Other Change Management Process:
A Composite Best Practices Approach to
MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
William L. Cunningham, PMP
http://cppit.com
http://wcunning.com
[email protected]
Twitter: wlcunning
Copyright 2010. Compliance Process Partners, LLC
Contact:
[email protected]
http://wcunning.com
Twitter: wlcunning
Presentation with notes available at
http://www.wcunning.com/DMM/DMMHome.html
Copyright 2010. Compliance Process Partners, LLC
Agenda
• Introductions
• Difficulties of Managing Organizational Change
• Composite Model to Building a Learning Organization
• Questions
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Homeostasis
Homeostasis:
the property of a system that regulates its
internal environment and tends to maintain
a stable, constant condition.
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Homeostasis
Homeostasis:
the property of a system that regulates its
internal environment and tends to maintain a
stable, constant condition.
Time (Delay)
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The Fifth Discipline – Systems Thinking
• Self-regulating systems have feedback loops
– they respond to a control mechanism that monitors the
system and seeks to return it to baseline.
• There is often a delay between stimulus and the acting of
the feedback loop
– a delay between stimulus and response if you will.
• While this balancing effect has positive origins—
homeostasis works to keep things the same- even if they
aren’t very good.
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The ‘System’ of Psychology
It takes 21 days to embed new behaviors and
make them habits.
We are defined by our habits
- Aristotle
When undertaking your New Year’s Resolutions
the best advice is to anticipate the inevitable
back-slide – it’s just homeostasis at work…
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Psychology and Organizational Change
• Organizations are comprised of individuals
• You cannot change ‘organizational behavior’
– Only the behavior of individuals can change
– (and you can’t change it…)
• So, individual psychology – and individual homeostasis- will
have to be accounted for in our project plans
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Organizations as Systems
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The J-Curve of Change
Initial level of happiness
and productivity.
Trough of
despair
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Happiness
&
Productivity
JJ J
Time
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Reasons for Failure of
Organizational Change Initiatives
• Difficulty changing the culture of the organization
• Lack of staff commitment and understanding
• Lack of education, communication and training
• Responsibility without sufficient authority
• Lack of effective ‘Champions’
• Loss of momentum after opening hype
• Lack of funding
Source – Pink Elephant (mostly)
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Reasons for Failure of
Organizational Change Initiatives
• Lack of quantifiable long term benefits (ROI)
• Lack of organizational learning (lessons learned – lack of
iterative culture)
• Satisfaction with status quo
• Over-focus on tactical, isolated solutions rather than a
strategic solution
• Trying to do everything at once
– over ambitious
Source – Pink Elephant (mostly)
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Reasons for Failure of
Organizational Change Initiatives
• No accountability; lack of clear ownership
• Tools unable to support processes
• People not skilled enough to support processes
• No structured Project Management
Source – Pink Elephant (mostly)
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• Serious organizational change takes 3-5 years
– This does not mean you can’t have quick wins
• You must be prepared for resistance to any significant
organizational change.
• You must also understand that change adoption is not
likely to be linear.
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Peter M. Senge – The Five Disciplines
(towards building a Learning
Organization)
•
•
•
•
•
1. Personal Mastery
2. Mental Models
3. Shared Vision
4. Team Learning
5. Systems Thinking
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Composite Organizational Change Model for the
Learning Organization
IndividualPsychological
Organizational
23
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Necessary Conditions for Successful Change:
1. Leadership for the Change
2. Capabilities that are weaved into the fabric of
the organization
-John Kotter
Leading Change
24
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Implementing Process: Managing Change
Eight Stages of Leading Change, John Kotter
1. Create Sense of Urgency
2. Create Guiding Coalition
3. Develop a Change Vision & Strategy
4. Communicate the Change Vision
25
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Still Managing Change
Kotter’s 8-Stage Process continued:
5. Empower Broad-based Action
6. Generate Short-term Wins
7. Consolidate Gains and Produce more Wins
8. Anchor New Approaches in the Culture
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Implementing Change- Communicating the Vision
through Anchoring
ADKAR Model: ‘Managing the People Side’ to embed
Changes in the culture:
• A: Awareness of need for Change (Communications)
• D: Desire to participate in and support the Change
• K: Knowledge on how to change (Education)
-Prosci – www.prosci.com
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• Desire does NOT mean 100%
acceptance rate
• 20 – 60 – 20 rule
(with apologies to V. Pareto)
-Prosci – www.prosci.com
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Implementing Change- Communicating the Vision
through Anchoring
ADKAR Model: ‘Managing the People Side’ to embed
Changes in the culture:
• A: Ability to implement required skills and behaviors
(Training)
• R: Reinforcement to sustain the change
-Prosci – www.prosci.com
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The Model Applied –
Change Trigger to 1. Sense of Urgency
• From current Shared Vision – where is the organization
falling short?
• What are the ‘pain points?’
• Have there been triggers? Specific occurrences leading to
a consideration of change?
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The Model Applied –
2. Create the Guiding Coalition
• Ideally a broad-based team
– Enough power to lead the change
– Enough knowledge to lead the change
•
•
•
•
•
Process Experts
ITSM Experts
Project Management
Functional Managers
Executive sponsor
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Generic Improvement Model – Steps for the
Guiding Coalition as they
3. Develop the Vision and Strategy
1. Analysis -- Where are We now?
2. Goals & Objective – Where do we want to be?
3. Plans– How do we get there
4. Measurement & Tracking – Are we there yet?
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Generic Improvement Model – Steps for the
Guiding Coalition as they
3. Develop the Vision and Strategy
• Analysis – Where are we now?
– Suggest widening the Guiding Coalition at this iteration
– Include line staff- those who best know existing process
– Include them in detail
definition
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Generic Improvement Model – Steps for the
Guiding Coalition as they
3. Develop the Vision and Strategy
• Suggest using Project Management Methodology
– Define the goals of the projects (charter)
– Clearly define the scope of the project (charter)
– Define a reasonable project schedule to track progress
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Generic Improvement Model – Steps for the
Guiding Coalition as they
3. Develop the Vision and Strategy
• Caution- Beware Scope Creep
– Recharter your Program if necessary
• As Knowledge is gained- the Vision may change as well
• Failure to recharter may shortchange the end of the program
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Generic Improvement Model –
4. Communicate the Vision
(Awareness and Desire)
• This is a continuous step – it should begin as soon as the
Vision is clear
• You are seeking to build:
– Awareness of the need for change
– Desire to participate in and
support the change
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Generic Improvement Model –
4. Communicate the Vision
(Awareness and Desire)
• Kotter suggests that it impossible to overcommunicate
– Use a variety of methods to communicate.
– Include the commitment- the change is NOT an option
(you can’t wait it out)
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Generic Improvement Model –
4. Communicate the Vision
(Awareness and Desire)
• Examples:
– Participation on Process and SOP Design Teams
– High Level Concepts Workshops
• First for Senior Managers
• Followed by Line Staff
– Posters
– Newsletter column
– Staff Meetings
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Generic Improvement Model –
5. Empower Broad Based Action
• Charter the Individual Projects
• Provide Funding
• Analysis Teams move to (re)Design
• Committee to design SOPs for Service Requests
• Process Design Teams for Incident, Problem and Change
• Vendor Selection
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Generic Improvement Model –
6. Generate Short Term Wins
• This is where Knowledge and Ability are applied
• (beware of ‘managing by low-hanging fruit.’)
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Generic Improvement Model –
7. Consolidating Gains
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Generic Improvement Model –
8. Anchor New Approaches (Reinforcement)
• Change Adoption and Execution is NOT likely to
be linear
• Have plans to Reinforce the Change
• Resist the temptation to declare victory too early
44
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The J-Curve of Change
Initial level of happiness
and productivity.
Trough of
despair
Copyright 2010. Compliance Process Partners, LLC
•Questions?
Contact:
[email protected]
http://wcunning.com
http://cppit.com
Presentation with notes available at
http://www.wcunning.com/DMM/DMMHome.html
Copyright 2010. Compliance Process Partners, LLC
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Managing Organizational Change