Violence prevention –
a public health priority
Philip Conaglen
Annette Gallimore
ScotPHN is hosted by
Project Group
Project Sponsor – Susan Webb, Acting DPH, NHS
Grampian
Lead author – Philip Conaglen, CPHM, NHS Lothian
Researcher, Annette Gallimore, NHS Lothian
Will Linden, Analyst Co-ordinator, Violence Reduction
Unit
ScotPHN (Phil Mackie, Ann Conacher, Gillian
McCartney)
WHO Definition, 2002
“The intentional use of physical force of
power, threatened or actual, against
oneself, another person, or against a
group or community that either results in
or has a high likelihood of resulting in
injury, death, psychological harm,
maldevelopment, or deprivation.”
Project Framework:
Section A - Context
•
Literature Review
•
Policy review and mapping
•
Epidemiological assessment
Section B – Preventing and reducing violence
•
Overview of violence
•
Identification of toolkits etc
•
Translating effective interventions into new
settings etc
Police recorded violent crimes in Scotland
(2012-13)
Non-sexual crimes of violence
Sexual offences
Common assault
7,530
7,693
60,955
Total
76,178
(Scottish Govt. (2013) Statistical Bulletin)
Scottish Community Justice Services estimates of
violent crimes identified in 2012-13, 52% not reported
Comparison of various police reported
violent crimes between 2008–09 and 2012–
13 and percentage change in Scotland
2008–09
2012–13
%
change
134
91
–32%
Attempted murder & serious
assault
6,472
3,643
–43%
Robbery
2,963
1,832
–38%
963
1,462
+52%
3,297
3,008
–9%
Homicide
Rape and attempted rape
Sexual assault
Source: Scottish Government 2013 Statistical Bulletin
Shared Causes of Violence at
Ecological Levels – Bellis et al (2012)
Ecological level
Shared
causes of
violence
Individual
Relationship
Community
Society
Victim of child abuse
Poor parenting practices
Poverty
Economic inequality
Psychological/ personality
disorder
Marital discord
High unemployment
Gender inequality
Delinquent behaviour
Violent parental conflict
High crime levels
Cultural norms that support
violence
Alcohol consumption/ drug use
Low socioeconomic household
Local illicit drug trade
High firearm availability
Delinquent peers
Inadequate victim care
services
Weak economic safety nets
Interventions to address the following
forms and contexts of violence
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Youth violence
Intimate partner violence
Child abuse
Suicide
Elder abuse
Sexual violence
Violence against people with disability
Substance use and violence
Other forms of violence eg FGM, honour based, stalking,
harassment
ScotPHN is hosted by
Initiative
Operation Perrygold
Partner organisations
Police Scotland
Aim
Evaluation
Dedicated patrol of Sauchie area, Clackmannanshire, to tackle youth disorder and prevent No
violence; to reduce number of complaints of antisocial behaviour; engage with young people
and prevent disorder related violence
Active targeting of high Police Scotland; Aberdeenshire To deliver victim-based interventions whilst the offender is in police custody
risk offenders
Council;
Community
Safety
Services; social work; housing;
NHS Grampian; Women’s Aid
resolution Police Scotland; Aberdeenshire SACRO to deliver conflict resolution workshops in two secondary schools identified as "hot Unknown
Council; SACRO
spots" for antisocial behaviour. To address challenging behaviour within schools; reduce
incidents of bullying; enable young people to understand conflict and how to deal with it
appropriately.
Conflict
workshops
Connect Service
Drugs
Service
Unknown
Barnado’s;
Aberdeen
Council; Police Scotland
City Works with young people who are involved in offending and risk taking behaviours, including No
those who have committed offences relating to violence or at risk from violence
Action/Quay Barnado’s; Action Aberdeen
GP
gender
violence pilot
based NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde
To educate and help prevent violence against female prostitutes
Unknown
To provide training and support to GP practice staff to support pro-active enquiry on No
domestic abuse; to improve and speed up access to information and referral into local
specialist domestic abuse support services
Gender based violence NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde Improving identification of experiences of
amongst people with Mental
Health
Services; disabilities
learning disabilities
Women’s Support Project
GBV amongst service users with learning Yes
“My attitude to peace is rather based on the
Burmese definition of peace - it really means
removing all the negative factors that destroy
peace in this world. So peace does not mean just
putting an end to violence or to war, but to all
other factors that threaten peace, such as
discrimination, such as inequality, poverty.”
Aung San Suu Kyi
Steering Group
Lucy Denvir
Consultant in Public Health
NHS Tayside
Moira Paton
Head of Community & Health
Improvement Planning
Senior Manager, Public Health
NHS Highland
Karyn McCluskey
Senior Clinical Lecturer Oral Surgery
School of Medicine
Co-Director
College of Medical, Veterinary and Life
Sciences University of Glasgow
Violence Reduction Unit
Linzie Liddell
Community Safety Unit
Scottish Government
Katie Cosgrove
National Programme Manager
NHS Health Scotland
Linda Irvine
Strategic Programme Mgr – Mental NHS Lothian
Health and Wellbeing
Health Improvement Specialist
NHS Borders
Community Safety Unit
Scottish Government
Health Improvement
NHS Lanarkshire
GBV Adviser
NHS Lothian
Consultant Public Health Medicine
NHS Dumfries&Galloway
Anne Clarke
Christine Goodall
Nic Amos
Clare Collin
Karen McGuigan
Lesley Johnston
Nigel Calvert
NHS Ayrshire & Arran
Scottish Public Health Network
www.scotphn.net
[email protected]
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a Scottish public health priority