Forgetting: When Memory
Fails
Made by Aušrinė Adomaitytė
Psbns9-01
Content:
The importance of forgetting
The first attempts to study forgetting
The reasons why we forget
Proactive and Retroactive Interference
Memory Dysfunctions
Sufferings in having perfect memory
Ways to improve memory
Conclusion
References
The Importance of Forgetting
Forgetting helps us avoid being
burdened and distracted by trivial
stores of meaningless data.
Forgetting permits us to form general
impressions and recollections.
Forgetting unnecessary information is
as essential to the proper functioning
of memory as is remembering more
important material.
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Memorizing lists of nonsense syllables such as
BAZ, JIH, FUB, YOX, SUJ, XIR, DAX, LEC,
VUM, PID, KEL, WAV, TUV, ZOF, GEK, HIV.
Why we forget?
A failure of encoding
The reason for memory failure is that
people probably never encode the
information into long-term memory initially.
Decay
Decay is the loss of information through
nonuse.
Memory trace: A physical change in the
brain that occurs when material is learned.
Interference : The phenomenon by which
information in memory disrupts the recall of
other information.
Cue-dependent forgetting: Forgetting that
occurs when there are insufficient retrieval
cues to rekindle information that is in
memory.
Proactive and Retroactive
Interference
Proactive interference: Interference in which information
learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material.
Retroactive interference: Interference in which there is
difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because
of later exposure to different material.
Memory Dysfunctions:
Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease: An illness characterized in
part by severe memory problems.
Alzheimer’s results from an inherited susceptibility
to a defect in the production of the protein beta
amyloid, which is necessary for the maintenance
of nerve cell connections.
Amnesia
Amnesia: Memory loss that occurs without other
mental difficulties.
Retrograde amnesia: Amnesia in which memory is
lost for occurrences prior to a certain event.
Anterograde amnesia: Amnesia in which memory
is lost for events that follow an injury.
Korsakoff’s syndrome: A disease that afflicts longterm alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact, but
including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat
the same story.
Sufferings in having perfect
memory
The case of man who had total recall: He could
memorize lists of fifty unrelated words and recall
them at will more than a decade later or he could
even repeat the same list of words backward.
Such skill presented quite a problem:
Eventually he was not able to relax
Reading became difficult since every word evoke a flood of
thoughts from the past that interfered with his ability to
understand the meaning of what he was reading.
Psychologist A. R. Luria, who studied hid case, found him to
be a “disorganised and rather dull-witted person”
Improving Your Memory
The key word
technique
Encoding specificity
Organization cues
Effective note taking
Practice and rehearsal
Don’t believe claims
about drugs that
improve memory
Conclusion
Memory plays a very important role in
every human’s life as it helps to
identify people, recognize places,
operate with information, recall events
and many other. Loosing memory is
very painful not only for that person
but also for everyone around.
References:
Information was taken on February 15th
Robert Feldman. “Understanding Psychology”, New York
(N.Y.) : McGraw-Hill, 2008
http://www.psych.mcgill.ca/levitin/pubspages/memory.html
http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edp
sy6/edpsy6_forgetting.htm
http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_wade_psychology_8/30/7716/19
75511.cw/content/index.html
http://www.gloriajean.org/main/005_About_Alzheimer's.cfm
Pictures references:
All pictures were picked on February 15th
http://img2.timeinc.net/health/images/slides/fibro-slidememory-400x400.jpg
http://www.squarecirclez.com/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2009/04/ebbinghaus-forgetting-curve.gif
http://www.dcity.org/braingames/pennies/coinBW.gif
http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edp
sy6/Fig6_2.gif
http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/1929/1975415/f0
7_p251.gif
http://www.gloriajean.org/images/pet_scans.jpg
http://system2.ipressroom.com/portal/ut/artwork/7/5/6/6/1/75
661/notes.memory_2-prv.jpg
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Forgetting : When Memory Fails