US Military Policy, 1865-1898
• Naval Policy
– The Post-Civil War Naval Doldrums
– 1880s revival: internal and external
causes
• Naval strategy, construction, a new mission
• Military Policy
– Post-Civil War Dark Ages
• Frontier Warfare
• Harbor Defense
– Emory Upton
Spanish-American War, 1898
• Mobilization, 1898
• Operations
– Philippines
• Battle of Manila Bay, 1 May 1898
• US Army expedition and Battle of Manila
– Cuba
• Naval Operations and Guantanamo landing
• Shafter’s V Corps and Santiago Campaign
– Battle San Juan Heights, 1 July 1898
• Naval Battle of Santiago, 3 July 1898
• Problems of victory
– Scandal, peace with Spain, Philippines
Philippine War, 1899-1902
• Benevolent Assimilation, Military government
• Emilio Aguinaldo and Philippine Republic
• Conventional War, February-December 1899
– Battle of Manila, February
– Operations in Central Luzon
• Guerrilla War, January 1900-July 1902
– Regional guerrilla war
– US counterinsurgency
• Military government, repression, Filipino allies, civil government
Military Policy, 1898-1917
• Great Power Military Problems
– Defense of empire, European threats
• War Department reforms (Root reforms)
– Professional education, reorganization,
Chief of Staff and General Staff
– Weapons, tactics, and Modern War
• Navy Department Reforms
– General Board and overseas bases
– Warship Construction
World War 1
• Preparation for War
– Preparedness Movement and National Defense Act, 1916
– US Army in 1917
• John J. Pershing and the AEF
– Missions
– Doctrine: Open Warfare and Trench Warfare
• Operations
– Belleau Wood, 8-25 June 1918
– Meuse Argonne, September-November 1918
• War in the Air
– William “Billy” Mitchell
Interwar Era, 1919-1940
• US strategic goals
• Army Missions and capabilities
– National Defense Act, 1920
– Pacific and continental defense
– Modernization
• Armor and Mechanization
• Army aviation
– Postwar missions vs. Air Power Theory
• Billy Mitchell and Chesapeake Tests
• Improvements in aviation technology
• Strategic Bombardment and its Critics
Naval and Amphibious War
•
Interwar Navy
•
Washington Naval Treaties, 1921-22
– Treaty Navy and Missions
•
War Plan ORANGE
– Naval Aviation
•
Technology and Doctrine
– Submarines
•
US Marine Corps
– Integration with War Plan ORANGE
– Reform, Doctrine, and Technology
World War II: Pacific
• Impact of Japanese victories, 1941-42
– Creation of defensive barrier
• US Navy and Central Pacific
– Organization and Task Forces
– Carrier Operations and island hopping
– Impact of Technology
• Aircraft, warships, submarines
Operations: battles of Midway and
Philippine Sea
Joint Warfare: Guadalacanal
Campaign, 1942-43
• Strategic overview
– Japanese and Allied plans
• Initial campaign, August-September
– USMC landing, defense of airfield
– Early sea and land battles
• October 1943-February 1944
• Air War
WW2: Air War
• Prewar Doctrine
• Combined Bomber Offensive vs Germany
– Problems and Casualties , 1943
– Adaptation and Victory, 1944
• Escort Fighter
– Big Week and Destruction of Luftwaffe
• Targeting: Transportation, POL
• Assessment
• The Other Air War in the Pacific
– Air support for land and sea operations