St John’s PE Revision Course
AQA AS PHED 1
Session 2
Skill Acquisition
Skill
• Characteristics and definitions of skill
• Difference between motor and perceptual
abilities
• Difference between skill and ability
• Types of skill – cognitive, perceptual and
psychomotor
• Classification of skill, use of skill continua
(open – closed, discrete – serial – continuous,
gross – fine, self paced – externally paced).
Characteristics of Skill
Learned
Economic
Coordinated
Goal directed
Fluent,
smooth
Aesthetic
Efficient,
effortless
Predetermined
Ability is………
Skill and Ability
Motor abilities are innate inherited traits that
determine an individual’s coordination,
balance ability and speed of reactions
Skill is…….
behaviour
A learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum
certainty often with the minimum outlay
of time, energy, or both
Motor or Perceptual Ability?
Perceptual – receiving, recognising, selecting,
organising information from our senses
Motor – Underlying characteristics, innate
traits
Skills require the combination of two or more of
these motor abilities
Sometimes knows as psycho-motor abilities
Leads to – perceptual skills, psycho-motor skill
Psychomotor Abilities
Gross Motor Abilities
Static
Dynamic
Flexibility
Strength
Explosive
Dynamic
Trunk
Extent
Psychomotor Abilities
Reaction Time - Simple, Choice
Dexterity -Manual, Finger
Limb Coordination
Control Precision
Rate Control
Arm Speed, Wrist Finger Speed
Arm Hand Steadiness Aiming
Skill Classification
Open
Closed
Gross
Fine
Self Paced
Discrete
Jan03Q2
Externally Paced
Serial
Continuous
Ans
Fundamental Motor Skills
Information Processing
• Input – senses, receptors, proprioception, perception, selective
attention
• Memory – functions and characteristics of short-term sensory store
• Short-term memory and long-term memory;
• Strategies to improve memory, chunking, chaining, mental
rehearsal and practice
• Decision making – reaction time, simple reaction time, choice
reaction time,
• Response time, movement time and the relationship between them
• Anticipation temporal and spatial
• Factors affecting reaction time, Hick’s law, psychological refractory
period, single channel hypothesis
• Motor programmes and sub routines
• Factors affecting efficiency information processing systems &
strategies for improvement
Vision (eyes)
Most important - 90% of
information
Info on movement of objects (ball/
players etc) own position.
Audition (ears)
Identification of what we
cannot see (team-mate
calling for ball)
Important in certain
sports – hear racket
make good strike on ball
Proprioception/Kinaethesis (body awareness)
Awareness of body’s position in space, sense of
balance, limb position, limb movement
Touch – feel grip on racket/floor, ball
DCR
STSS
Sensory
Input
Short-term
memory
Perception
Selective
Attention
Jan04Q5
Long-term
memory
Decision
making
Feedback
badrally
Kinaethesis
Ans
Movem
ent/
executi
ve
Perception
• Acquiring, selecting , interpreting, and organising sensory information
•Involves D C R – Detection Comparison Recognition
DCR
Sensory
Input
Short-term
memory
Perception
Acquiring and selecting
Long-term
memory
Interpreting
and
organising
Feedback
Concurrent
Intrinsic
Extrinsic
Negative
Knowledge of
performance
Positive
Terminal
Knowledge of
Results
Feedback – Stages of Learning
Cognitive
Extrinsic(KR)
Terminal
Autonomous
Intrinsic(KP)
Concurrent
Negative
Positive
June02Q1
Associative
Ans
Open and Closed Loop Control
Decision Making
Input
Identify
Stimulus
Programme
Select
Response Response
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
Output
Improving memory
• Chunking
• Chaining
Chunking is organising material into meaningful units by
breaking information down, thereby greatly increasing
recall capacity.
Parts of a skill are practised individually, in the correct
order, before being linked together and expanded.
This allows for the memorising of the whole movement
• Mental Rehearsal
mental rehearsal of movement can
produce effects similar to practising the
actual movements, including memorising
movement sequences.
Jan04Q4
Reaction Time
Ans
“time between onset of stimulus and initiation of response”
Movement Time
“time from the initiation of the first movement to
the end of the movement”
Response Time
(Reaction Time + Movement Time)
“from the onset of the stimulus to the completion
of the response action or movement”
Reaction
Movement
Response
Can I react faster?
Reaction time is affected by the number of stimuli –:
Simple reaction time – one
stimulus one response
Choice reaction time
Hicks Law
Reaction Time
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
Secs
Respond correctly when
faced with several stimuli
each requiring a different
response
0.5
Reaction Time
0.4
0.3
0.2
Respond correctly to a
specific stimuli from a choice
of many
0.1
0
1
2
4
8
16
No of alternatives
32
Can I react faster?
Compatibility between the stimulus
and response
Stimulus intensity
If the stimulus is predictable
By previous experience or practice – cue
detection, set pieces
Anticipation
Age
Gender
Anxiety
Management
Anticipation
Event anticipation is the ability
to predict what will occur
Spatial anticipation - an
athlete's ability to predict
where an event will occur
Temporal anticipation is the
ability to predict when the event
will occur or the timing of an
action
Single Channel
Hypothesis
S2
S1
S2
S2
S1
0.2
R1
S1
Psychological
Refractory Period
0.05
0.15
0.2
S2
R2
0.35
Jan02Q5
Ans
PRP
From Standing to Scoring the Winning
Goal
Sustained Coordinated Skill
Performances
Sport Specific Skills
Fundamental Motor
Skills
Psychomotor
abilities
Executive
Plan
SubRoutines
Forward
Swing
Contact
Backswing
Follow
Through
Ball drop
Recovery
Grip
Motor abilities
Stance
Limb Coordination, Control Precision, Arm
Speed, rate Control, Aiming, Trunk Strength,
Gross Coordination, Extent Flexibility
Learning and Performance
• Learning – stages of learning, use of guidance, how feedback differs
between the different stages of learning
• Learning plateaus – causes and solutions
• Motivation – intrinsic, extrinsic, tangible and intangible
• Learning theories – operant conditioning, positive and negative
reinforcement and punishment
• Cognitive/insight theories
• Bandura’s observational model of learning, social learning theory
• Motor learning –Schmidt’s schema theory (recall, recognition, initial
conditions, response specifications, sensory consequences,
response outcomes)
• Transfer of learning (positive, negative, zero, bilateral, proactive and
retroactive) o impact of practice on improving learning
• Goal setting – benefits and types, principles of effective goal
setting.
How do we get
from him…..
Developing
and
adapting
our genetic
traits
through
experience,
guidance
and
maturation
…..to him?
What is learning?
A relatively permanent change in behaviour
or performance due to past experience
and/or practice
How is that change in behaviour
achieved?
Does it happen all at once?
Learning Theories
• Get into pairs
• Make 3 paper balls
• Learn to juggle in pairs by using each of the
learning theories or forms of guidance
Stimulus response
Observational learning
Schema theory
Verbal
Visual
Mechanical
Operant Conditioning or
Associationist/Connectionist Theories
Associating a stimulus
Shaping
with a response
Making a
connection
between a stimulus
and a response
June03Q5
Ans
S R bond
Conditioning or Associationist/Connectionist
Theories
Bond formed by
success/reward
Positive
reinforcement strengthens bond
Negative reinforcement –
strengthens bond –
withdraw aversive actions
Punishment – weakens the bond
June02Q2
Ans
volleyball
Thorndike’s Laws of Learning
Law of Readiness –
physically and mentally
ready/able to do task
Law of Exercise – bond
strengthened by repetition
of stimulus/action
reinforcement
Law of Effect – if the
effect is good it will be
repeated
Periods of
rapid
progression
and plateau
Insightfulness
Not S
R
Cognitive
Theories
Understanding of
relationship between
process and outcome
Constant reorganisation
of response in the light
of new experiences
Observational Learning/Modelling
Receiving
and
processing
stimuli
Observation
Model characteristics
Attention
Retention
Athletic
performance
June02Q5
Motor
reproduction
Motivation
Performance
Ans
Important cues
Concentration span
Mental rehearsal
Physically able
Feedback
Schmidt’s Schema Theory
Schema – a set of
rules/relationships that allow
the performer to decide upon a
solution to a problem
Does not accept that
there is a motor
programme for every
physical action
Jan04Q3
Ans
Learning is derived
from past experience
and an understanding
of the new situation
Recall Schema
Initial Conditions
Where we are – knowledge
of environment
Body Position
Limb Position
Recognition Schema
Sensory Consequences
Sensory Feedback
During and after
movement
Use of all senses
KP
Response Specification
What have I got to do?
Direction
Speed
Force
Response Outcomes
Compare actual with
intended outcome
KR
What is my
goal?
Where am I
starting?
Recall
Schema
Select and
adapt a
response
Perform a
motor action
How close did I
get? KR
Modify my
response
Recognition
Schema
What does it
feel like? KP
June04Q3
Stages of Learning
badsmash
Cognitive
Associative
Autonomous
Beginner
Practice
Phase
Almost automatic
Basics
acquired
Little conscious
control, habitual
Smoother, less
errors
Consistent, highly
skilled
Can detect
gross errors
Detect & correct
errors
Longer phase
Can give attention
to other aspects of
display
Understanding
what to do
Cognitive
images
Initial plan of
action
Directed to
important
aspects
Short phase
Variety of
conditions
Performed easily
Transfer of Learning
Positive
Bi-lateral
Zero
Old – New Situation
Retroactive
Pro-active
Negative
Forms of Guidance
Mental
Accurate
Image
Visual
Highlight
important cues
Physical
Restriction
Use with
visual
Early
Stages
Verbal
Cue
words
Demo’s
On own with
experts
Safety
Manual/mechanical
Early Stages
Forced
Remedial Response
Jan05Q4
Ans
Jan02Q1
Ans
Motivation
Motivation is why people do what they do
Internal mechanisms - our inner drives towards
achieving a goal or outcome;
External stimuli mean the pressures and
rewards that we gain, seek or avoid, from those
around us
Arousal means how intense is our behaviour.
Table tennis
Motivation
Intrinsic – from within –
participation for sheer
fun/enjoyment (self-satisfaction);
Extrinsic – from without/outside –
playing for rewards
External reward
Tangible –concrete, such
as badges and medals;
Intangible – untouchable such
as praise from others
Motivation
The vast majority of research into motivation has
concluded that intrinsic motivation is far better
than extrinsic
Performer may end up doing the activity just for
the reward; Enjoyment of the activity is lost;
Extrinsic reward if not valued will not develop
intrinsic motivation;
Extrinsic rewards can lose their power
Skill acquisition in practical situations
• Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the following
factors and explain how to improve performance
• Factors to consider when developing skill and planning
training/coaching sessions
• Teaching styles – command, reciprocal, discovery and problem
solving
• Methods of presenting practice; whole, progressive part and wholepart-whole.
• Types of practice: massed, distributed, variable and mental practice.
• Methods of guidance: verbal, visual, manual and mechanical
• Feedback – types of feedback, Knowledge of Performance,
Knowledge of Results, terminal, concurrent, delayed, positive and
negative, intrinsic, extrinsic
Spectrum of teaching styles
Adapted from Mosston & Ashworth
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
Teachers
decisions
Learners
decisions
J
Games for understanding
Game
Game
Appreciation
Performance
Learner
Tactical
Awareness
Skill execution
Making appropriate decisions
What
to do
How
to do
Schema Theory - Teaching
Implications
To develop recall
schema
Practice in a wide
variety of situations
Knowledge of wide variety
of situations allows variety
of response
More successful response
Use appropriate
type of feedback to
develop recognition
schema
Schema Theory relevant
to both learning new
responses and adapting
old responses to new
situations
Organising Practice
Practice time is
Simple Skill
short
New Skill
Young learners -
Low
motivation
short attention
To simulate
fatigue
Massed
Adverse
conditions
Distributed
Highly motivated Learners are
Complex Skill
able, fit and
Fatigue may be
learner
experienced
dangerous
June05Q5
Ans
Motivation & Practice
Challenging, Interesting, Attainable, Relevant, Evaluated
Beginners
Understand the relevance of training drills;
Receive positive feedback based on knowledge of results;
Selective simple feedback on knowledge of performance.
Skilled performers
Knowledge of performance regarding fine precise
movements;
Help in developing kinaesthetic feedback;
Some Negative feedback.
Types of goals
Outcome goals – relates to end result
More unpredictable, less controlled, chose easy win/lose
situations, lose motivation quickly
Performance goals – relates to performance judged
against other performances – better the last performance
e.g. time
Feel in control, selects realistic tasks, defeat not major set
back – better.
Process goals – relates to technique or tactics
Similar to performance goals
Goal Setting
Why?
How?
S
M
A
R
T
specific
measurable
achievable
recorded
time bound
Milestones/Targets
Clear route
Motivational
Develops self-efficacy
Helps monitor progress
Ans
Jan05Q1
Goal-setting
Benefits:
• Makes performer persist
• Focuses attention on certain skills - directs
• Motivates – sustains, diversifies
• Boosts confidence
• Reduces stress
• Helps achievement of long-term goals
• Reduces anxiety
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Antrim PE Revision Course AQA AS PED 1 - The Parker E