Chapter Twelve
Behavioral
Performance
Management
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives
• Define the theoretical processes of learning:
behavioristic, cognitive, and social.
• Discuss the principle of reinforcement, with special
attention given to the law of effect, positive and
negative reinforcers, and punishment.
• Analyze organizational reward systems,
emphasizing both monetary and nonfinancial
rewards.
• Present the steps and results of behavioral
performance management, or organizational
behavior modification (O. B. Mod.).
Introduction
• Overview of learning theory and principles
that serve as a foundation and point of
departure for presenting the behavioral
management approach
Learning Theory Background
• Behavioristic theories
– Classical conditioning
• Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment
• Neutral stimulus, paired with unconditioned
stimulus, becomes a conditioned stimulus and
elicits a conditioned response
– Operant conditioning
• Learning that occurs as a consequence of
behavior
Learning Theory Background
Continued
• Examples of classic and operant conditioning
Learning Theory Background
Continued
• Cognitive Theories
– Relationship between cognitive environmental
cues and expectation
Learning Theory Background
Continued
• Social learning and social cognitive theory
– Social learning
• Learning can also take place via vicarious, or
modeling, and self-control processes.
– Social cognition
• Identifies capabilities that initiate, regulate, and
sustain behavior:
– Symbolizing, forethought, vicarious/modeling learning,
selfregulation, and self-reflection.
Learning Theory Background
Continued
• Social learning and social cognitive theory
(continued)
– Modeling processes
• Involves interrelated subprocesses, such as:
– Attention, retention, motoric reproduction, and
reinforcement.
– Self-efficacy
• Beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and
execute the courses of action required to produce
given attainments
Principles of Learning:
Reinforcement and Punishment
• Laws of behavior
– Law of effect
– Extinction principle or law
• Critique of reinforcement theory
– Person’s cognitive rationalizations might
neutralize them
• Reinforcement as used in behavioral
management
– Rewards and reinforcers
Principles of Learning: Reinforcement
and Punishment Continued
• Positive and negative reinforcers
Principles of Learning: Reinforcement
and Punishment Continued
• Use of punishment
– Meaning of punishment
• Weakens behavior and tends to decrease its
subsequent frequency
– Administering punishment
– Guidelines for discipline
• Always attempt to reinforce instead of punish in
order to change behavior
Role of Organizational Reward
Systems
• Analysis of money as a reinforcer
• Nonfinancial rewards
– Social recognition and attention
– Performance feedback
Role of Organizational Reward
Systems Continued
• Nonfinancial rewards (continued) - Categories
Behavioral Performance,
Management, or O. B. Mod.
• Step 1: Identification of performance
behaviors
– Systematic behavioral audit
• Step 2: Measurement of the behavior
– Baseline measure
• Step 3: Functional analysis of the behavior
– ABC analysis - antecedents (A) and consequences
(C) of the target behavior (B)
Behavioral Performance, Management,
or O. B. Mod.
Continued
• Step 3: Functional analysis of the behavior
(continued)
Behavioral Performance, Management,
or O. B. Mod.
Continued
• Step 4: Development of an Intervention
Strategy
– Positive reinforcement strategy
– Punishment-positive reinforcement strategy
• Step 5: Evaluation to ensure performance
improvement
Behavioral Performance, Management,
or O. B. Mod.
Continued
• Application of behavioral management
– Employee productivity
– Absenteeism and tardiness
– Safety and accident prevention
– Sales performance
• Manufacturing versus service applications
Questions
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Chap012 - Organizational Behavior