OJDDA Conference
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Practical Application of Effective
Practices
Troy Fuller and John Aarons
OJDDA Training Team
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Acknowledgements
Research Conducted By:
Ed Latessa, Ph.D.
University of Cincinnati Corrections Institute
Don Andrews, Ph. D.
James Bonta, Ph.D.
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Rationale for Training
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
A recent study of parole by the Urban Institute indicated that
the “no parole” group performed about as well as the
“mandatory and discretionary parole” group.
A meta-analytic review of approximately 25 studies indicated
that probation is no more effective than other community-based
sanctions such as fines, community service, etc.
Bonta et al. (forthcoming)
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Rationale for Training
PROBLEMS WITH “TRADITIONAL” COMMUNITY SUPERVISION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dosage
Length of community supervision
Caseload size
Unknown risk of offenders
Content of interaction with offender
Focus on external controls
Other policy/procedural issues
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Rationale for EPICS Training
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
The most current research is suggesting that the
relationship with the officer and what is discussed
is important.
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Necessary Ingredients for
CHANGE
Expectancy
Facilitator
Characteristics
Approach
Offender
Characteristics
Adapted from: Michael D. Clark. (2001). “Influencing Positive Behavior Change:
Increasing the Therapeutic Approach of Juvenile Courts.”
Relationship Skills
RELATIONSHIP SKILLS
• Staff should be open, warm, and have respectful
communication.
• Staff should be non-blaming, empathic, and genuine.
• Staff should be flexible, use humour, and be engaging.
• Staff should be enthusiastic and express optimism.
• Staff should avoid argumentation and support self-efficacy.
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Rationale for Training
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING
A study on case management practices in Manitoba probation found
that the development of supervision plans was based more on what the
court mandated than what the assessments indicated.
 in number of topics discussed,  in recidivism
The more you focus on the more likely you are to increase recidivism.
FOCUS ON CRIMINOGENIC!!!!!
Bonta, Rugge, Seto, and Coles (2004)
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Rationale for Training
VERA INSTITUTE
“If we get [community supervision] right, we could cut
incarceration by 50 percent, have less crime rather than
more crime, and spend the same amount of money.”
Right Conversation
Right Kid
Right Time
Improved Result
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Principles of Effective
Intervention
THREE MAIN PRINCIPLES
• Risk
• Need
• Responsivity
• *********Activities*********************
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Principles of Effective
Intervention
NEED PRINCIPLE
• Identify and target criminogenic needs:
-
Attitudes, values, beliefs
Peer associations
Personality
Education/employment
Family
Substance abuse
Leisure/recreation
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Principles of Effective
Intervention
RESPONSIVITY PRINCIPLE
• Specific responsivity
- Remove barriers to treatment
- Match style and mode of service delivery to key offender
characteristics
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Cognitive-Behavioral Model
DEFINING THEMES AND CHARACTERISTICS
ACTIVE
PRESENT-FOCUS
BASED ON THEORIES OF LEARNING
INDIVIDUALIZED
WELL RESEARCHED
RELATIVELY BRIEF
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Cognitive-Behavioral Model
DEFINING THEMES AND CHARACTERISTICS
STEPWISE PROGRESSION
Simple
Complex
Easier
Harder
Less
threatening
More threatening
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Cognitive-Behavioral Model
DEFINING THEMES AND CHARACTERISTICS
TREATMENT PACKAGES
• Treatment plans should combine various
techniques:
- Reinforcement
- Modeling and role playing
- Token economies
- Response cost
- Contingency contracts
- Thinking reports
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Structure of Contact
1. Check-In
2. Review
3. Intervention
4. Homework and Behavioral Rehearsal
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Structure of Contact
CHECK-IN
CHECK-IN:
1. To determine if client has any crises/acute
needs
2. Build rapport
3. Discuss compliance issues
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Structure of Contact
REVIEW
1. The skills discussed in your prior meeting
2. The application of those skills
3. Troubleshooting any continued problems in
the use of those skills
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Structure of Contact
INTERVENTION
1. Identify continued areas of need
2. Identify trends in problems that the client
experiences
3. Teach relevant skills
4. Target problematic thinking
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Structure of Contact
HOMEWORK AND PRACTICE
1. Give the client an opportunity to see you model what you are talking
about
2. Provide the client with the opportunity to role play the new
skill BEFORE leaving your office with feedback
3. Assign the client homework that focuses on applying the new skill
4. Give instructions that the client should follow before the next visit
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Reinforcement
DEFINITION
• Positive
reinforcement
involves
the
application of a stimulus to increase
behavior.
• Example:
An offender completes his homework
assignments for one week, and receives two
extra hours of free time.
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Reinforcement
DEFINITION
• Negative reinforcement involves the removal
of a stimulus to increase behavior.
• Example:
An offender remains sober for four
consecutive months, and the probation
officer extends her curfew.
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Reinforcement
COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE
REINFORCEMENT
• The systematic use of reinforcement is the
most powerful tool in strengthening or
teaching new behavior.
• The effective use of reinforcement involves
selecting and
reinforcers.
administering
appropriate
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Reinforcement
TYPES OF REINFORCERS
• Material objects can be used as tangible
reinforcers.
• Examples of tangible reinforcers include
food, clothes, electronic devices, books,
and recreational equipment.
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Reinforcement
TYPES OF REINFORCERS
• Token reinforcers are symbolic items that
have value because of what they can be
exchanged for or what they stand for.
• Examples of token reinforcers include
money, awards, certificates, as well as
tokens/points.
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Reinforcement
TYPES OF REINFORCERS
• Social
reinforcers
include
praise,
acknowledgement, attention, approval, etc.
• There are several advantages associated
with the use of social reinforcers:
- ease of administration
- limitless supply
- availability for immediately use
- natural reinforcers
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Reinforcement
EXAMPLES OF REINFORCERS
• Some sample reinforcers in communitybased correctional settings include:
- specific praise/feedback on performance
- indirect praise
- group recognition
- extended curfew
- less frequent meetings with staff
- assist group facilitator/act as a mentor
- badges, ribbons, certificates
- job in a special setting
- gift certificates
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Reinforcement
GUIDELINES FOR ADMINISTERING
REINFORCERS
• The reinforcer must be administered during or
immediately following the behavior.
• Reinforcement must be contingent on performing the
desired behavior. In other words, the person must be
required to engage in the desired behavior in order to
receive reinforcement.
• Reinforcers should be administered consistently.
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Reinforcement
EFFECTIVE SOCIAL REINFORCEMENT
• Immediately tell the offender that you like the type of
behavior or speech just exhibited.
• Explain why you like what the client said or did
(provide specific reasons).
• The support provided to the client regarding the
approved behavior is given greater emphasis in order
to distinguish it from the type of support normally
given to the client.
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Reinforcement
SKILL DEMONSTRATION
• Please watch the following demonstration of
the skill.
• Be sure to note each step as it is practiced.
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Reinforcement
PARTICIPATION EXERCISE
• Please complete Reinforcement Exercise
At Your Table.
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Reinforcement
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
• What can you do if you have little or no behavior to
reinforce?
• There are two alternatives:
- Watch carefully and, when the behavior occurs
even at a low level, begin giving systematic
reinforcement.
- Model and prompt the desired behavior.
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Punishment
DEFINITION
• Punishment involves the application of a
stimulus to decrease behavior.
• Example:
An offender has possession of contraband,
and the correctional officer gives him extra
chores to do.
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Punishment
DEFINITION
• Punishment also involves the removal of a
stimulus to decrease behavior.
• Example:
An offender has a positive drug screen after
a weekend pass, and his case manager
takes away his privileges for one week.
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Punishment
GUIDELINES FOR ADMINISTERING
PUNISHERS
• The consequence (removal of reinforcers or introduction of undesirable
consequences) should occur immediately after the target behavior.
• The consequence should be administered each time the target behavior
occurs.
• The client should be made aware of the target behavior for which the
consequence will be administered.
• Reinforcement should not closely follow the delivery of the
consequence.
• The consequence should be preceded by a warning cue.
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Punishment
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
• If punishment is used alone, then another
maladaptive behavior is likely to fill the gap.
• Therefore, it is important to reinforce a
competing response.
• Competing Values/Behaviors
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Punishment
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
• The unwanted behavior may increase at
first.
• Don’t Be Surprised.
• Part of Change Process.
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Punishment
POTENTIAL PROBLEMS
• It is important to look for unwanted side
effects:
- emotional reactions (e.g., anger, anxiety, etc.)
- avoidance/withdrawal
- perpetuation effects
- negative peer support
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Effective Disapproval
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
DISAPPROVAL
• Immediately tell the offender that you did not
like the type of behavior or speech just
exhibited by the client.
• Explain why you did not like what the
offender said
reasons).
or
did
(provide
specific
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Effective Disapproval
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE
DISAPPROVAL
• The disapproval is given greater emphasis in order
to distinguish it from the type of support normally
given to the client.
• The staff member encourages the client to think
about why the behavior is undesirable, and what
kinds of short and long term consequences will be
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derived through continued use of this behavior.
Effective Disapproval
SKILL DEMONSTRATION
• Please watch the following demonstration of
the skill.
• Be sure to note each step as it is practiced.
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Effective Disapproval
PARTICIPATION EXERCISE
• Please complete Effective Disapproval
Exercise.
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Effective Use of Authority
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF
AUTHORITY
• Focus message on behavior and not the client.
• Be direct and specific concerning demands.
• Use a normal voice. Do not yell and scream!!!
• Specify choice and attendant consequences—this is
a big one! Do not use doomsday ultimatums.
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Effective Use of Authority
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE USE OF
AUTHORITY
• Give encouraging messages.
• Support words with action. Follow through!
• Provide respectful guidance towards compliance.
• Look for good things too; do not just monitor for compliance.
• Reward or praise compliance.
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Effective Use of Authority
SKILL DEMONSTRATION
• Please watch the following demonstration of
the skill.
• Be sure to note each step as it is practiced.
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Effective Use of Authority
PARTICIPATION EXERCISE
• Please complete Effective Use of Authority
Exercise.
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Behavioral Contracts
DEFINITION
• A behavioral contract is an agreement
between two or more persons that lists
specific behaviors that the parties will
perform and the consequences that will
result.
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Behavioral Contracts
NEGOTIATING A BEHAVIORAL
CONTRACT
• Arrange a meeting with the client.
• Discuss concerns with his/her behavioral
performance.
• Explain the concept of a behavioral
contract, and provide a few examples.
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Behavioral Contracts
NEGOTIATING A BEHAVIORAL
CONTRACT
• Select appropriate reinforcers with the client.
• Negotiate the ratio of behavior to reinforcement.
Specifically, establish what must be done to
receive reinforcement.
• Determine the achievement level to be met by the
client. In order to ensure motivation, you might
initially start the client within an easily achievable
level and negotiate for a higher level of
performance.
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Behavioral Contracts
PARTICIPATION EXERCISE
• Complete sample behavioral contract.
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Modeling
DEFINITIONS
• A model is a person who demonstrates
a behavior for another person.
• The term modeling is the process
through which a trainer demonstrates
the behavior to be learned by the
trainee.
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Anti-Criminal Modeling
GUIDELINES FOR MODELING
• Be sure to carefully identify the exact behavior you
are going to teach.
• Define the behavior in observable, measurable terms.
• Be
certain that the behavior
developmental level of the trainee.
is
within
the
• Simplify the behavior (i.e., specify the skill steps).
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Anti-Criminal Modeling
GUIDELINES FOR MODELING
• Be certain that the learner pays attention to
the behavior being modeled.
• Do not model inappropriate behaviors!
• Keep a record of the client’s progress.
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Anti-Criminal Modeling
GUIDELINES FOR MODELING
• Demonstrate the behavior in concrete and vivid
ways.
• Use self-instructions.
• Reinforce the client for demonstrating the desired
behavior (and follow the guidelines for effective
reinforcement discussed earlier).
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Social Skills Training
REVIEW OF STEPS
1. Define the skill
2. Record/measure the skill
3. Set goals
4. Teach social skills
5. Reduce inappropriate behaviors
6. Evaluate social skills
7. Extend social skills
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Social Skills Training
“TEACHABLE MOMENTS”
• It is also important to capitalize on the
teachable moment.
• This allows you to turn such occasions
into a corrective teaching interaction.
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Social Skills Training
TIPS TO EXTEND/GENERALIZE SOCIAL
SKILLS
• Involve socially competent peers, who reinforce
and model appropriate skills, in the intervention.
• Train in more than one setting.
• Intervene directly in the setting where the
social skills need to be exhibited.
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Cognitive Restructuring
•
Man is disturbed not by things but the views he takes of them.
- Epictetus, 135 A.D.
•
It is very obvious that we are influenced not by “facts” but by our interpretation of facts.
- Alfred Adler, 1954
•
Still the man hears what he wants to hear and disregards the rest.
- Simon and Garfunkel, 1968
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Cognitive Restructuring
EXTERNAL
INTERNAL
BEHAVIOR
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Cognitive Restructuring
SKILL DEMONSTRATION
• Please watch the following demonstration of
how to teach the cognitive behavioral model.
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Cognitive Restructuring
PARTICIPATION EXERCISE
• Please complete Cognitive Restructuring
Exercise
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Cognitive Restructuring
“TAPES”
• Tapes are thoughts or ideas that you have
that say it is acceptable to engage in
criminal or some other antisocial behavior.
-
Neutralizations
System Bashing
Victim Stance
Macho Man/Woman
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Cognitive Restructuring
“COUNTERS”
• Once we identify a tape that leads to
criminal or other problematic behavior, we
need to develop a counter.
• Counters are alternative thoughts and
behaviors that replace the old tapes and
behaviors.
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Cognitive Restructuring
PARTICIPATION EXERCISE
• Please
complete
tapes
and
counters
Exercise.
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Cognitive Restructuring
THINKING REPORTS
• A brief description of the situation.
• A detailed report of thoughts.
• A brief report of feelings.
• Identify any significant patterns displayed in
the thinking report, and then discuss
counters.
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Problem Solving Skills
STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING
1. Stop and Think and Identify the Problem:
How do you know you have a problem? Discuss some signs
or cues that might alert the client that they are facing a
problem.
2. Clarify Goals:
Determine what exactly the client wants to happen in the
situation and what is best for him/her and everyone involved.
3. Generate Alternative Solutions:
Brainstorm for possible solutions to the problem.
important that all ideas be accepted without judgment.
It is
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Problem Solving Skills
STEPS OF PROBLEM SOLVING
4. Evaluate:
Review all the alternatives generated in step 3 and discuss the
short-term and long-term consequences of the situation.
5. Implement the plan:
Develop concrete action steps in this stage and role play the
plan. The client will then use this plan in between groups.
6. Evaluate the plan:
Once the client has tried the plan, he/she will need to
determine whether or not it is “working”. Discuss some ways
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to evaluate and modify the plan implemented in Step 5.
Problem Solving Skills
PARTICIPATION EXERCISE
• Please
complete
Problem
Solving
Exercises.
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Summary of Training
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
• Community Corrections can be effective at
reducing recidivism.
• Success with offenders requires the
application of the Cognitive Behavioral
Model and the Principles of Effective
Intervention.
• Just as we have clients practice new
social skills, we should too!
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Stages Of Change
Pre- Contemplation
Termination
Relapse
Maintenance
Contemplation
Action
Preparation
Prochaska’s “Stages of Change” Taken from: Miller, Duncan and Hubble (1999), “The Heart & Soul of Change”,
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American Psychological Association