How to Become An
Intelligent Cultural
Learner?
Michael Goh, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Comparative and International Development Education
Department of Organizational Leadership, Policy, and Development
College of Education and Human Development
University of Minnesota
[email protected]
“The world
is a book,
of which those who
stay in one place
read only one page”
St. Augustine
U-Curve Model of Cultural Adjustment
Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fulbright Scholars visiting
the United States. International Social Science Bulletin, 7, 45-51.
Everything is beautiful
Everything is awful
(Culture Shock)
Everything is OK
Level of Comfort and Satisfaction
Cultural Adjustment Curve
Surface adjustment
Everything is new,
exciting & different
Frustration/annoyance
with everyday
differences
Adaptation/assimilation
Confronting deeper
cultural/personal
issues
• “Knowing
yourself is
the beginning
of all
wisdom.”
Aristotle
•“认识你
自己,是一
切智慧的
开端”
HUMAN NATURE
CULTURE
Cultural Artifacts/Systems
Cultural Values and
Assumptions
INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY
© www.CulturalQ.com
Culture
American Psychological Association (2002). Guidelines for Multicultural Education and
Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists.
Washington, DC: Author.
• The belief systems and value orientations
that influence customs, norms, practices, and
social institutions, including psychological
processes (language, care taking practices,
media, educational systems) and
organizations; Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, &
Nisbett, 1998).
• Culture is fluid and dynamic, and that there
are both cultural universal phenomena as
well as culturally specific or relative
constructs.
7
CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE (CQ)
© 2010 Cultural Intelligence Center, LLC
www.CulturalQ.com
• Almost 90% of leading executives surveyed
from 68 countries designated cross-cultural
leadership as the top management
challenge for the next century (Livermore,
2010).
© 2010 Cultural Intelligence Center,
www.culturalq.com
Cultural Intelligence Quotient (CQ)
The capability to function effectively
across various cultural contexts (national,
ethnic, organizational, gender, class,
generational, etc.).
--Soon Ang and Linn Van Dyne, “Conceptualization of Cultural Intelligence” in Handbook
of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement, and Applications (Armonk, NY: M.E.
Sharpe, 2008), 3.
© www.CulturalQ.com
CQ as a 4-step Cycle
How should I adapt?
4. CQ
ACTION
3. CQ
STRATEGY
1. CQ
DRIVE
What’s my
motivation for
this
assignment?
2. CQ
KNOWLEDGE
What’s my plan?
What cultural
understanding
do I need?
© 2010 Cultural Intelligence
Center, www.culturalq.com
© www.CulturalQ.com
Multiple facets of CQ
•Nonverbal
•Verbal
•Speech Acts
•Awareness
•Planning
•Checking
4. CQ
ACTION
1. CQ
DRIVE
2. CQ
3. CQ
STRATEGY KNOWLEDGE
© 2010 Cultural Intelligence
Center, www.culturalq.com
•Intrinsic
•Extrinsic
•Self-Efficacy
•Business
•Cultural Values
•Socio-Linguistics
•Leadership
© www.CulturalQ.com
Chinese Character for LISTEN
CQ Knowledge
Our level of understanding about cultural
issues
CQ
KNOWLEDGE
• Food
• Values
• Classroom
Culture
• Language
• Religions
• Traditions
© www.CulturalQ.com
Paul Little: Know Why You Believe
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Is Christianity Rational?
Is There a God?
Is Christ God?
Did Christ Rise from the Dead?
Is the Bible God’s Word?
Are Bible Documents Reliable?
Does Archaeology Verify What the Bible Says?
Are Miracles Possible?
Do Science and ChristianityAgree?
Why Does God Allow Suffering and Evil?
Does Christianity Differ From Other World Religions?
Other Resources
•
•
•
•
•
Ravi Zacharias: Jesus Among Other Gods
Greg Boyd: Letters From A Skeptic
Frank Morison: Who Moved the Stone?
Fritz Ridenour: So What’s the Difference?
Josh McDowell
– Evidence That Demands A Verdict Volumes 1 & 2
– More Than A Carpenter
– Reasons Skeptics Should Consider Christianity (with
Don Stewart)
Charles W. Colson
Francis A. Schaeffer
• The God Who Is There:
The Book That Makes
Sense Out of your World
• Escape from Reason
• He is There and He is
Not Silent
Discussion Questions
• What can I do to maximize my cultural
learning while in the United States?
• What can I do to maximize my cultural
learning about my international visitors?
• Am I interested in learning about Christianity
or other religions as part of my cultural
learning?
• Can I be a Christian and culturally intelligent
at the same time?
Thank you for listening
and my very best wishes
for your academic,
professional
AND personal journey
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Cultural Identity Development Models