THE PSYCHODYNAMIC
PERSPECTIVE:
NEOFREUDIANS
AP Psychology
PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE
A more modern view of personality that
retains some aspects of Freudian theory but
rejects other aspects
Retains the importance of the unconscious mind
Less emphasis on unresolved childhood conflicts
NEO-FREUDIANS
Followers of Freud’s
theories but
developed theories
of their own in areas
where they
disagreed with Freud
Disagreed with
Freud in his belief
that:
1. Behavior is motivated
by sexual urges
2. Personality is formed
by early childhood
experiences
3. Human nature and
society are inherently
driven by sex and
destruction.
POST-FREUDIAN
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES
THE NEO-FREUDIANS
Carl Jung’s collective unconscious
Karen Horney’s focus on security
Alfred Adler’s individual psychology
CARL JUNG (YOONG)(1875-1961)
 Rejected Freud’s
assertion that human
behavior is directed by
sex & aggression.
 Believed in general
psychic energy that
pushes us to grow
psychologically.
 First to describe
introverts and extroverts
CARL JUNG (YOONG)(1875-1961)
Introverts
 Introverts are shy people
who like to be by
themselves and prefer
quiet events.
 Can make friends, just don’t
NEED them
Extroverts
 Extroverts are people
who are outgoing, like
social events, and enjoy
talking to other people.
Video
CARL JUNG (YOONG)(1875-1961)
Jung believed that within the collective
unconscious are archetypes, symbols that
represent various ideas and thoughts.
 For example, snakes represent evil, or a mother
represents nurturing.
 Jung argued that children are
inherently afraid of snakes,
because this knowledge is
contained in the collective
unconscious passed from
generation to generation,
promoting survival and protection.
ARCHET YPES
Archetypes – Mental
images of human
instincts, themes
and preoccupations
that are shared by
all cultures.
Often expressed in a
culture’s mythology
& folk tales.
Anima
 sense of “femaleness”
in males
Animus
 sense of “maleness” in
females
Other archetypes:
 “The Shadow”- dark
side inside us all
 the hero
 the wise old man
 the nurturing mother.
KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952)
 Believed cultural/social
variables (especially
parent-child
relationships) are the
foundation of personality
development not sex like
Freud.
KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952)
 Found psychoanalysis
negatively biased
against women.
 Women didn’t have
“penis envy” it was
instead that they envied
men’s superior status in
society.
 Instead said men
have “womb envy”
and compensate by
making creative
achievements in their
work.
KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952)
Looked at anxiety related to security and
social relationships, especially parent-child
relationships.
Basic anxiety— “the feeling of being isolated and
helpless in a hostile world”
KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952)
Felt that healthy
personalities are
flexible in balancing
these needs and
anxieties
but unhealthy
people are stuck in
one of three ways of
dealing with anxiety.
KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952)
 Deal with this anxiety by.
Moving Toward Other People
– having an excessive need
for approval & affection
 People who are
classified as this
relationship
become bothered,
or act differently
when they are not
given enough
attention or
support from
friends and
family.
KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952)
 Deal with this anxiety by.
Moving Against Other People
– having an excessive need
for power over other people
 People who are
classified with
this relationship
become irritated
and act
differently when
they are not in
control or
allowed to make
decisions in
group settings.
KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952)
 Deal with this anxiety by.
People
in
this
Moving Away from Other
relationship
People – having an excessive
need for independence making become upset
when they are
them aloof and detached from
others.
not given
enough “alone
time”, or are
constantly
being asked
questions by
others.
ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937)
 Agreed with Freud on the
importance of early
childhood but thought
social tensions were more
important than sexual
tensions
 Believed psychological
problems were the result
of feelings of inferiority
 Inferiority Complex - A
condition that comes from
being unable to
compensate for normal
inferiority feelings
ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937)
Inferiority Complex - A condition that comes
from being unable to compensate for normal
inferiority feelings
ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937)
Children often argue with
parents about being able to
do something by themselves.
 Adler believed children wanted to
show their parents that they are
capable of doing things on their
own and are not dependent on
them and hence inferior.
Adler also believed that
people brag to cover up to
make other people forget or
not notice their inferiorities.
EVALUATING &
UPDATING
FREUD’S
PSYCHOANALYTIC
THEORY
NeoFreudians
EVALUATION OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
 Evidence is inadequate— Freud’s data is developed from
a small number of upper class patients or from self analysis. (skewed sample)
 All of Freud’s data was from him so was he imposing his own ideas
onto his patients or seeing only what he expected to see?
 Theory is not testable—lack of operational definitions
and no way to measure results. Good at explaining the
past but not at prediction.
 Many psychoanalytic concepts impossible to disprove because even
contradictory information can be used to support Freud ’s theory.
 Sexism—believed that women were weak and inferior.
Used male psychology as basis for all people
 Said women were more vain, masochistic, and jealous than men
and influenced more by their emotions and had a lesser moral and
ethical sense than men.
UPDATING FREUD’S THEORIES
Most psychodynamic psychologists agree:
 Sex is not the basis of personality.
 People do not “fixate” at various stages of
development.
 Much of a person’s mental life is unconscious.
 Childhood experiences shape us socially and
psychologically.
 People struggle with inner conflicts and regulating
their impulses, emotions and thoughts toward what
society deems acceptable.
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Slides: Neo-Freudian - AP Psychology-NWHS