THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE: NEOFREUDIANS AP Psychology PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE A more modern view of personality that retains some aspects of Freudian theory but rejects other aspects Retains the importance of the unconscious mind Less emphasis on unresolved childhood conflicts NEO-FREUDIANS Followers of Freud’s theories but developed theories of their own in areas where they disagreed with Freud Disagreed with Freud in his belief that: 1. Behavior is motivated by sexual urges 2. Personality is formed by early childhood experiences 3. Human nature and society are inherently driven by sex and destruction. POST-FREUDIAN PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES THE NEO-FREUDIANS Carl Jung’s collective unconscious Karen Horney’s focus on security Alfred Adler’s individual psychology CARL JUNG (YOONG)(1875-1961) Rejected Freud’s assertion that human behavior is directed by sex & aggression. Believed in general psychic energy that pushes us to grow psychologically. First to describe introverts and extroverts CARL JUNG (YOONG)(1875-1961) Introverts Introverts are shy people who like to be by themselves and prefer quiet events. Can make friends, just don’t NEED them Extroverts Extroverts are people who are outgoing, like social events, and enjoy talking to other people. Video CARL JUNG (YOONG)(1875-1961) Jung believed that within the collective unconscious are archetypes, symbols that represent various ideas and thoughts. For example, snakes represent evil, or a mother represents nurturing. Jung argued that children are inherently afraid of snakes, because this knowledge is contained in the collective unconscious passed from generation to generation, promoting survival and protection. ARCHET YPES Archetypes – Mental images of human instincts, themes and preoccupations that are shared by all cultures. Often expressed in a culture’s mythology & folk tales. Anima sense of “femaleness” in males Animus sense of “maleness” in females Other archetypes: “The Shadow”- dark side inside us all the hero the wise old man the nurturing mother. KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952) Believed cultural/social variables (especially parent-child relationships) are the foundation of personality development not sex like Freud. KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952) Found psychoanalysis negatively biased against women. Women didn’t have “penis envy” it was instead that they envied men’s superior status in society. Instead said men have “womb envy” and compensate by making creative achievements in their work. KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952) Looked at anxiety related to security and social relationships, especially parent-child relationships. Basic anxiety— “the feeling of being isolated and helpless in a hostile world” KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952) Felt that healthy personalities are flexible in balancing these needs and anxieties but unhealthy people are stuck in one of three ways of dealing with anxiety. KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952) Deal with this anxiety by. Moving Toward Other People – having an excessive need for approval & affection People who are classified as this relationship become bothered, or act differently when they are not given enough attention or support from friends and family. KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952) Deal with this anxiety by. Moving Against Other People – having an excessive need for power over other people People who are classified with this relationship become irritated and act differently when they are not in control or allowed to make decisions in group settings. KAREN HORNEY (HORN-EYE)(1885-1952) Deal with this anxiety by. People in this Moving Away from Other relationship People – having an excessive need for independence making become upset when they are them aloof and detached from others. not given enough “alone time”, or are constantly being asked questions by others. ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937) Agreed with Freud on the importance of early childhood but thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensions Believed psychological problems were the result of feelings of inferiority Inferiority Complex - A condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937) Inferiority Complex - A condition that comes from being unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings ALFRED ADLER (1870-1937) Children often argue with parents about being able to do something by themselves. Adler believed children wanted to show their parents that they are capable of doing things on their own and are not dependent on them and hence inferior. Adler also believed that people brag to cover up to make other people forget or not notice their inferiorities. EVALUATING & UPDATING FREUD’S PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY NeoFreudians EVALUATION OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Evidence is inadequate— Freud’s data is developed from a small number of upper class patients or from self analysis. (skewed sample) All of Freud’s data was from him so was he imposing his own ideas onto his patients or seeing only what he expected to see? Theory is not testable—lack of operational definitions and no way to measure results. Good at explaining the past but not at prediction. Many psychoanalytic concepts impossible to disprove because even contradictory information can be used to support Freud ’s theory. Sexism—believed that women were weak and inferior. Used male psychology as basis for all people Said women were more vain, masochistic, and jealous than men and influenced more by their emotions and had a lesser moral and ethical sense than men. UPDATING FREUD’S THEORIES Most psychodynamic psychologists agree: Sex is not the basis of personality. People do not “fixate” at various stages of development. Much of a person’s mental life is unconscious. Childhood experiences shape us socially and psychologically. People struggle with inner conflicts and regulating their impulses, emotions and thoughts toward what society deems acceptable.