Neo-Freudian’s and NonFreudians. Are you as Jung as you feel? G. Stanley Hall Alfred Adler John Bowlby Carl Jung Erik Erikson Karen Horney Carl Gustav Jung • (1875-1961) • Was a student and follower of Freud. • Disagreed with Freud on some key elements of personality theory • In 1912 he and Freud had a sever falling out never to reconcile. From Jung’s Theory • You will find a strong connection between Jung and two relatively modern psychological theories. 1. Transactional Analysis - Berne 2. Humanistic Psychology - Rogers, Maslow, Rollo May Disagreement • Jung did not subscribe to the idea that sexuality was a major force in personality. He did not see unresolved sexual issues as barriers to development. • He viewed the structure of personality as somewhat different than Freud. Jung vs.. Freud Freud Jung 1. Id - our base desires 1. Ego - provides including sex and conscious direction aggression 2. Persona - the 2. Ego - the mediator character or role we between the Superego and the Id as well as the assume keeper of the reality 3. Self - the totality of principle the person (conscious 3. Superego - your moral and unconscious) base and societies demands. Jung’s Unconscious • Personal unconscious - this is similar to Freud’s concept of the unconscious. • Collective unconscious - biologically based reflecting universal themes and ideas. (not individual expression) – Archetypes - patterns within the collective unconscious serving to organize our experiences. Archetypes The three most significant archetypes 1. Anima - the complimentary qualities of the persona in a man. (example: intellectual/ sentimental) 2. Animus - the complimentary qualities of the persona in a women. Ex: nurturing/heroic 3. Shadow - the dark side where more primitive aspects reside. Source of Jung’s Position • He had a rocky relationship with his father • The conflict of spirituality vs. intellectual acceptance of doctrine. • Jung believed by exploring symbols we can understand the dynamics of the mind. Jung’s Developmental Position • Jung believed the developmental process was one of individuation. • Individuation is a lifelong process of increasing awareness with the ultimate goal of joining the conscious and the unconscious in the self. • He did not believe it could actually occur. • Think of Maslow’s self-actualization concept. With Jung think Opposites Conscious versus Unconscious Ego versus Shadow Introversion versus Extroversion. Karen Horney • Remained in the Psychoanalytic fold but took great exception to the idea that women have “penis envy”. • She argued that it was insulting philosophy and bad science to claim that half the human race is dissatisfied with its anatomy. Karen Horney She openly chastised her male colleagues for their one sided point of view. 1. She believed there was evidence of female superiority “indisputable and by no means negligible physiological superiority” 2. If anyone has envy it is men, it is womb envy. 3. She believed that “castration fear” was very real for males but not from the father. 4. She believed that the driving force in personality is not aggression and sexual instincts but “basic anxiety. Erik Erikson • (1902-1994) • Developed a fuller theory of personal development going beyond the age of 6. • He called his theory psychosocial as opposed to psychosexual. Psychosocial Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Trust versus Mistrust Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Initiative versus Guilt Competence versus Inferiority Identity versus Role Confusion Intimacy versus Isolation Generativity versus Stagnation Ego Integrity versus Despair Alfred Adler • Born in 1870 in Vienna, Austria • Studies under Freud and was part of the inner circle from 1902-1911 • Was the president of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society in 1910. Alfred Adler • From the beginning Adler had difficulty accepting Freud’s view on the nature of drives and the Oedipal conflict. • After one year of his presidency in the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society he resigned and formed the Association for Individual Psychology. Adler 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Influenced by Darwinian theory shaped Adler’s view of the individual. Inferiority Compensation Inferiority Complex Superiority Complex Style of life - now know as lifestyle. John Bowlby • Born in 1907 • Studied at Cambridge University • Began to study with the British Psychoanalytic Society. • Focused on Mother Child Separation. John Bowlby Object-Relations Theory Studied an infants attachment to mother. Deprived of normal contact with parents or other adults led to problems with attachment. Others involved were Melanie Klein, Ronald Fairbairn, D. W. Winnicott Object-Relations Theory In contrast to Freud’s emphasis on the Oedipal period object-relations theorists hold that the first two years are the most critical for development of the inner core personality. The term object in object-relations theory is because the child not only attaches to mother but also the evolving perception of her. Object Relations Theory Unlike Freud where displacement of psychic energy is the key to disorder Bowlby et al. believe sources of attachment are critical to development. The key issues in life are balancing independence versus attachment. Losses can include a spat with a friend or family member to divorce or death. Splitting “The unsatisfying experiences that occur in relation to mother then find their expressions in particular reflection of her in the infant’s inner world. Mother becomes a disappointing person who has to be split in two: the know and the longed-for giving mother and the known and deeply disappointing mother” (Eichenbaum & Orbach, 1983) Male / Female Development • In the Freudian school the female is seen as the developmental problem. The unresolved Oedipal conflict limits there moral development. • In the Object-Relations school it is the male the is the developmental problem. The attachment to the mother and the struggle with opposites causes males to have faulty moral development.