LEARNING OBJECTIVES
The Learner Will
1. Contemplate research related to the
significance of purposeful movement in
individuals with visual impairments
2. Consider the impact of purposeful movement
on brain development and learning
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
The Learner Will
3. Synthesize information presented and be
able to state the relationship between
purposeful movement, brain development
and learning.
4. State the potential role of the Certified O&M
specialist in brain development and learning
AGENDA
• Basic overview of brain development
• Learning Theories
• Undesirable consequences of non-purposeful
movement
• Benefits of Purposeful Movement
AGENDA
• Difference between O&M and PT
• TVI’s role in determining Need for O&M
• Role of O&M Specialist in Movement
Instruction
• Questions/Answers
ANATOMY OF THE BRAIN
BASIC FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN
The brain is made up of cells called neurons, which
communicate by sharing electrical signals”
www.fcs.uga.edu/ext/bbb/brainAnatomy.php
BASIC FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN
• The networks of connections between neurons
determine everything that happens in the
brain.
http://www.fcs.uga.edu/ext/bbb/brainAnatomy.php
BASIC FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN
• The connections are developed and refined
during brain development, based on a
person’s specific experiences.
WHAT IS LEARNING?
Learning is often defined as a relatively lasting
change in behavior that is the result of
experience.
http://psychology.about.com/od/lindex/g/learning.htm
HOW DO WE LEARN?
Behaviorist Theory
• All behaviors are
acquired through
conditioning.
• Conditioning occurs
through interaction
with environment
• Natural
Consequences
• Rewards and
Punishments
Cognitive Theory
• Internal mental
activity and not from
external stimuli
• The Learner brings
knowledge, skills and
related experiences
to the learning
situation
• The Learner is active
participant in
learning process
HOW DO WE LEARN?
Constructivist
• Learning created by
exploring the world
• Learning occurs
when existing
knowledge comes
into contact with
new knowledge
gained through
experience
Social Cognitive
• People can learn
new information
and behaviors by
watching other
people. Known as
observational
learning (or
modeling
MOVEMENT’S CONNECTION TO LEARNING
• Interaction with the environment –
behaviorist
• Learning brings knowledge and skills –
cognitive theory
• Learning is created by exploring the world –
constructivist
• Learning occurs through observing others –
social cognitive
WE LIKE TO MOVE IT MOVE IT…..
PURPOSEFUL MOVEMENT
OF LEARNING
I S A N I M P O R TA N T PA R T
• BRINGS CONTEXT AND EXPERIENCE TO LIFE
• I N C R E A S E S O U R U N D E R S TA N D I N G O F T H E W O R L D
O&M……
Hill & Ponder, 1976)
PRIMARY QUESTION?
Do individuals with visual and additional
impairments (MIVI) benefit from O&M
from a COMS?
(MIVI) - Persons with visual and additional impairments such as ID, CP, motor impairments; hearing impairments
WHO RECEIVES O&M?
Blind Students
Patrially Sighted
Visual and coexisting disabilities
0
20
40
60
80
100
National Center for Special Education Research, 2002
SENSORY INTEGRATION OR NOT
• Proprioception: sense that assists with orientation of
one’s body in space
• Vestibular sense – sense which interprets the effects
of gravity on the body and head position
• Haptic sense: sense of touch
IF…..
• Proprioceptive and vestibular skills typically
are delayed or absent in children with visual
impairments
• People, especially children with visual
impairments may not have sufficient vision to
aid in developing these senses
(Wiener, Welsh & Blasch, 2010)
IF.....
• The haptic sense combines proprioception
with touch and describes an individual’s ability
to determine physical properties of items like
shape, size and texture.
(Pogrund and Fazzi, 2002)
“Because visual
information informs and
helps interpret so much
of one’s sensory
experiences, vision loss
could be said to produce
a degree of sensory
integration dysfunction.”
(Pogrund & Fazzi, 2002, p. 310)
THEREFORE…..
• Visual and additional impairments may
present even greater sensory and movement
integration deficiencies when compared to
students with only a visual impairment.
• This fact may indicate an increased need for
targeted instruction in orientation and
mobility skills for persons with visual and
additional impairments.
MOVEMENT WE DON’T LIKE
In an effort to restore homeostasis or a feeling
of sensory integration and balance, children
(persons) with visual impairments may engage
in stereotypical movements such as eye
poking, rocking, or self-injurious behaviors
(Gal & Dyck, 2009)
MOVEMENTS WE DON’T LIKE
• Only students with cognitive delays and blindness
participated in head-banging as a self-injurious type of
stereotypical movement
• Students with blindness and no cognitive delays did not
exhibit head-banging as a self-injurious form of
stereotypical movement
• and were less likely to participate in any form of selfinjurious stereotypical movement pattern.
(Gal & Dyck, 2009)
MOVEMENTS WE DON’T LIKE
Individuals with visual and additional
impairments may participate in stereotypical
movement patterns in an effort to reach
homeostasis
Direct instruction in
orientation and
mobility may aid an
individual in achieving
the desired state of
homeostasis thus
decreasing undesired
movement patterns
I CAN’T MOVE IT MOVE IT…..
Theory of learned helplessness
The concept of learned helplessness was
discovered accidentally by psychologists
Martin Seligman and Steven F. Maier.
I CAN’T MOVE IT MOVE IT….
When people feel that they have no control
over their situation, they may also begin to
behave in a helpless manner. (lack of
motivation to move)
MOTIVATION AND MOVEMENT
• Without motivation, purposeful movement is
unlikely to occur
In the absence of direct
instruction in
orientation and mobility
skills the behavior of
learned helplessness
may occur in individuals
with visual and
additional impairments
MOVEMENT AND LEARNING
Brain Gym
Brain gym is the creation of Dr. Paul Dennison
and his wife Gail Dennison and is based on
simple movements which are designed to
integrate all areas of the brain and mobilize
them into action
MOVEMENT AND LEARNING
The specific areas of the brain targeted are:
• Laterality dimension – the left and right
hemisphere; side to side.
• Focus dimension – the receptive brain stem
and expressive forebrain; back to front
• Centering dimension – limbic system and
cerebral cortex; top to bottom.
(Li, 2008)
MOVEMENT AND LEARNING
The groups studied were 6th graders from a
resource room for students with visual
impairments and 2nd and 3rd graders with
visual impairments in a self-contained
classroom.
(Li, 2008)
MOVEMENT AND LEARNING: RESULTS
• According to this research, the spelling test
average rose 10 points for the 6th grade
resource students.
• The student with diagnosed learning
disabilities manifested observed
improvements in adaptive social behaviors,
following instructions, and taking initiative
(Li, 2008)
1. Do you know any
students who have
visual and multiple
impairments who receive
orientation and mobility
instruction from a
certified orientation and
mobility specialists? 11
out of 13 respondents or
84 percent responded
‘yes’.
2. Of the MIVI students you
know who receive
orientation and mobility
instruction from a certified
orientation and mobility
specialist, have you noticed
changes in their intentional,
purposeful movement? 7 out
of 11 respondents or 64
percent responded ‘yes’, 2
respondents skipped the
question.
•
•
•
“learn and retain simple
routes they did not know
before training”
“use proper guided travel
technique...grip guide's arm
properly when instructed”
“deliberate reaching for
objects and switch activated
activities -increased activity
level within the little room
environment -rolling to
activate a blowing fan”
MOVEMENT BRINGS CONTEXT…..
REFERENCES
Gal, E., Dyck, M.J. (2009). Stereotyped movements among children who are
visually impaired. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 12, 754765.
Hill, E., & Ponder, P. (2003). Orientation. Orientation and mobility techniques:
a guide for the practitioner. (pp.3-11). New York: AFB Press.
Li, T. (2008). Do students with visual impairment benefit from movementbased learning (brain gym?). AER Journal: Research and Practice in Visual
Impairment and Blindness,. 2,
78-80.
Pogrund, R., & Fazzi, D. (2002). Early focus: working with young children who
are blind or visually impaired and their families. New York: AFB Press.
Wiener, W., Welsh, R., Blasch, B. (Eds.). (2010). Foundations of orientation
and mobility. (Vols. 1-2). New York: AFB Press.
http://ies.ed.gov/ncser/pubs/20083007/figures/figure 05.asp
http://psychology.about.com/od/lindex/g/learning.htm
http://www.fcs.uga.edu/ext/bbb/brainAnatomy.php
Download

The Movement-Thinking Connection