Perceived SelfEfficacy
NCI: Schwarzer & Luszczynska
Presented by Erica Howes
What is self-efficacy?
 A “sense of control over one’s environment and behavior”
 Self efficacy can influence:
 Initiation of change
 Effort to make a change
 Length of change
 Types of goals set
Theories Using Self-Efficacy
 Self-efficacy appears in some form in:
 Theory of Planned Behavior
 Transtheoretical Model
 Health Action Process Approach
 Social Cognitive Theory
 Theory of Triadic Influence
Measurement of Self-Efficacy
 Scales for measuring self-efficacy depending on the
specific type of self-efficacy in question.
 Measuring usually involves a sentence like:
“I am certain that I can do xx, even if yy (barrier)”
(Luszczynska & Schwarzer, 2005).
General Self-Efficacy
 General self efficacy- “broad and stable sense of personal
competence to deal effectively with a variety of stressful
situations” (Schwarzer & Luszczynska)
 General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale
 10 questions, range 1-4 for each
 Ex) “I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough”
(Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995).
Self-Efficacy for Health Behaviors
 Health behaviors studied:
 Nutrition
 Exercise
 Alcohol Resistance
 Smoking Cessation
 Medication Adherence
 Condom Use
 Preventive Behaviors (Breast Self Examination)
Nutrition Self-Efficacy
 Self-efficacy is a strong
predictor of nutrition
 Can relate to:
 Making good food
 Controlling intake
 Self-regulatory efforts
 Overcoming barriers
Schwarzer & Renner, 2000
Measuring Self-Efficacy
 How might you measure self-efficacy for:
 Exercise
 Alcohol Consumption
 Smoking
 What factors might influence self-efficacy that could be
important to address in the measurement?
 Ex) Social, environmental, other?
Exercise Self-Efficacy
 Can relate to:
 Specific tasks (ex- ability to complete a given amount of
 Regularity of exercise
 Overcoming barriers to exercise
 Self-efficacy associated with:
 Endurance
 Competitive performance
Alcohol Consumption SelfEfficacy
 Situational Confidence Questionnaire
Annis, 1984, 1987
Alcohol Consumption SelfEfficacy
 Controlled Drinking Self-Efficacy
 Measured with Controlled Drinking Self-Efficacy Scale
 Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy
 Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (DRSEQ)
 Abstinence Self-Efficacy
 Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASE)
Smoking Cessation Self-Efficacy
 Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ)
 Context-specific: self-efficacy varies from
situation to situation
 Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire
 Predicts smoking rate: negative affect, positive
affect, restrictive situations (to smoking), idle
time, social-food situations, low arousal,
Medication Adherence SelfEfficacy
 Used to explain adherence to regimens of:
 Anti-retroviral medication for HIV
 Self-injection treatment for MS
 Epilepsy medications
 Diabetes- Self-Efficacy for Diabetes scale
 Insulin injections, blood glucose monitoring, dietary
prescriptions, exercise
 Hypertension
 Medication adherence self-efficacy scale (Gbenga et al, 2003)
Condom Use Self-Efficacy
 Condom Use Self-Efficacy scale- describes “feelings of
confidence about being able to purchase and use
Detective Behaviors Self-Efficacy
 Breast Cancer Screening- Breast Self Examination
 BSE Self-Efficacy scale measures intention + maintenance
 Prostate Cancer Screening
 Colorectal Cancer Screening
(Un)related Constructs
 Self-concept- “organized knowledge of oneself”
 Self-esteem- emotional response to self-knowledge
 Locus of control- attribution of responsibility for outcomes
 Self-concept of ability- “judgment of competence without
reference to action”
 Dispositional optimism- “generalized outcome
 Hope- agency (similar to self-efficacy) + pathways (similar
to outcome expectancies)
Locus of Control
 Internal or external (I/E)
 Internal control of behavior (individual)
 External control of behavior (other forces/chance)
 A greater internal locus of control can promote better
 Similar to self-efficacy, but self-efficacy “is also behavioral
and prospective” (Schwarzer & Luszczynska)
Thank you!

H571 Week 5 - Perceived Self