Using Student-Involved Classroom Assessment to Close Achievement Gaps Rick Stiggens & Jan Chappuis (2004). Theory Into Practice. Winter 2005, PP 11-18. Two Challenges 1. Prevent young students from “giving up” by fostering confidence in their ability to succeed in school. 2. Help students who have abandoned all hope for success overcome their feelings of defeat. Self-efficacy vs Self-confidence Self-efficacy and Self-confidence are not the same thing. Self-efficacy is the belief one holds in his or her ability to be successful. A student can have a high level of self-confidence and still not believe he or she can be successful academically. Academic Self-efficacy Often Matures in Small Increments Small, incremental successes can often lead to incremental increases in a student’s confidence. Increases in confidence can lead to greater effort. Greater effort will often lead to additional success. Success, as perceived by the student must be genuine. Three Classroom Assessment Tools Three uses of classroom assessment that (if done right) can encourage student selfefficacy thus leading to achievement successes: Student involvement in recordkeeping. Student involvement in the assessment process. Student involvement in communicating about their progress. Involving students in recordkeeping. If students have a clear understanding of the instructional intentions (i.e., learning targets) they can (with guidance) be taught to monitor their own progress. Involve the students themselves in identifying the criteria for success. Show the students how to keep records and chart their progress toward the learning targets. Student Self-Assessment Over time, and with help and guidance, students can learn to validly evaluate their own work. This requires clear evaluation criteria. Portfolios can play an important role here. Evaluating their own performance gives students a sense of control. Student Communication About Their Performance Innovations such as studentled conferencing adds further to a student’s sense of control over his or her learning and success. Showing a parent where he or she is in the progression toward the learning targets helps the student assume responsibility for learning. The Positive Impact of Formative Classroom Assessment (Assessment FOR Learning) has been Supported by Research Bloom’s early research that showed a large advantage in achievement for students exposed to classroom assessment practices that supported learning. Black and Wiliam’s review of research literature that showed large positive advantages with formative classroom assessment. Four Important Conditions for Effective Classroom Assessment FOR Learning 1. Clearly articulated learning targets. 2. Well-defined criteria, including standards, for success. 3. Accurate assessment and continuous access to valid feedback. 4. Student involvement in communicating assessment results. Clearly Articulated Learning Targets. Students need to have a clear understanding of: where they are supposed to go, where they are presently in relation to that journey, and how they can get there. Well-defined Criteria, Including Standards, for Success. Students need to know what is expected of them and what evidence will be used to gauge whether or not they meet that expectation. This means that teachers, themselves, must be clear about their instructional intentions. Accurate Assessment Results and Continuous Access to Valid Feedback. Assessments of learning must match the learning targets. The assessment tasks need to be representative of the content domain. Scores on assessments must lead to valid inferences about the student’s progress toward the learning targets. Student Involvement in the Communicating Assessment Results. Continuous communication about assessment results is a critical component of assessment FOR learning. Teachers need to know where students are on the learning continuum. Students need to know where they are on the learning continuum. Parents need to know where their children are on the learning continuum. In Conclusion… Carefully planned and crafted classroom assessments can play a major role in supporting and reinforcing learning by helping students: – – – Realize incremental success. Understand what it is they are supposed to accomplish and how that accomplishment will be measured. Involving students in their own assessment and learning.