Human Factors Contributions to
Patient and Family
Engagement
Richard J. Holden, PhD
Vanderbilt University
3.11.14
Human factors contributions…
1. Human factors can contribute
to healthcare what it has done for
aviation, nuclear power, etc.
2. Human factors can contribute to
primary care what it has done for
aviation, nuclear power, etc.
3. Human factors can contribute to
patients and families what it has done
for professionals (pilots, MDs, RNs, etc.)
2
Human factors
“The road to patient safety runs through the
provider, so design work systems to
support performance and hazard
reduction: an alternative patient safety
paradigm”
3
Human factors methods
(Gawron, 2000; Stanton et al, 2013; Wickens et al, 2004; etc.)
Source: Word cloud of tables of content for human factors methods
books and chapters (edited)
4
Human
factors
-
5
Human factors
6
“SEIPS 2.0”
[Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety]
Holden, R. J., Carayon, P., Gurses, A. P., Hoonakker, P., Hundt, A. S., Ozok, A. A., & Rivera-Rodriguez, A. J.
(2013). SEIPS 2.0: A human factors framework for studying and improving the work of healthcare
professionals and patients. Ergonomics, 56(11), 1669-1686.
Patient-engaged human factors
Patient-engaged human factors
“The application of human factors
theories and principles, methods and
tools, analyses, and interventions
to study and improve
work done by patients and families,
alone or in concert with healthcare
professionals.”
(Holden & Mickelson, 2013; Holden et al., 2013)
8
Patient-engaged human factors
9
Patient-engaged human factors
• AMAcan
Code
of Medical
Ethics engaged,
• Patients
(and should)
be “empowered,
equipped, enabled”
•
•
•
•
• 1847 (original): The obedience of a patient to
Patients and families are the most underused resource in
the prescriptions of his physician should be
healthcare
prompt and implicit. He should never permit
his own crude opinions . . . to influence his
Healthcare is shifting away from the paternalistic model
attention to them.
(culturally & legally)
• 2012-13 (current): Physician and patient are
There are
ongoing
efforts to support
patient
engagement,
bound
in a partnership
that requires
both
including
throughto
electronic
tools role in the healing
individuals
take an active
process
Patients and family members already engage in decision
making, information management, etc.
10
Patient-engaged human factors
11
Patient-engaged human factors
• Not new, but much needed
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Patient-clinician-technology trust, communication (Montague)
Family-centered pediatric rounds (Carayon, Cox)
Patient health information search (Marquard)
Human factors of home care and IT (Zayas Cabán, Brennan, Valdez)
User-centered IT design to support med adherence (Ozok, Siek)
HF design of labels, charts, reminders for ill elderly (Morrow)
Control theory applied to diabetes self-management (Altman Klein)
Resilience engineering and medication taking (Furniss, Barber)
Care pathways for chronically ill elderly (Waterson, Eason)
Use, usability of personal health records (Czaja, Pak)
Technology for aging in place (Rogers, Fisk, Mitzner)
Instructional design and education for patients (McLaughlin)
Etc.
12
(Five) contributions of human factors
to patient and family engagement
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The systems model
Work/task/process analysis
Workload and situation awareness tools
Teamwork-facilitating methods
Incident capture and analysis
Physical ergonomics, load stress evaluation, facilities dx
Individual/team training, expert/novice differences
Adaptive automation, augmented reality
Human-computer interaction, user interface design
User-centered design process, usability testing
Simulation, VR, microworlds
(& lots more!)
13
(Five) contributions of human factors
to patient and family engagement
•
•
•
•
•
The systems model
Work/task/process analysis
Workload and situation awareness tools
Teamwork-facilitating methods
Incident capture and analysis
1) Outpatients with heart failure
NIA/NIH K01AG044439, PI: Holden
2) Patients and family members
describing nonroutine episodes of care
PCORI IP2 PI000072-01, PI: Weinger
14
#1. The systems model
Hazards/barriers to optimal self-care adherence?
Vs.
External
Environment
15
#1. The systems model
Barriers to self-care (from > 3100 references)
Barrier
# barrier
subtypes
% pts w/ barrier
(N=30)
Avg. # per
patient
Person (patient)
63
100%
40.3
Person (caregiver)
17
67%
5.5
Task
22
100%
10.4
Tool/technology
17
83%
5.8
Physical-spatial
13
83%
3.8
Socio-cultural
14
90%
4.9
Organizational
41
100%
17.0
Interaction
22
93%
7.7
Total = 209
(Holden & Mickelson, 2013)
16
2. Self-care performance is shaped by specific
“work system” factors
17
An 85 year old woman with heart failure
1 Although she knows importance of exercise
2
and is motivated to exercise,
3 walking is difficult for the patient
4 due to physical impairment and fatigue.
3 5
7
Patient 1
9
2
4
10
However, she can swim
6
and has access to an outdoor community pool.
7 Although she has no car,
8 Son
8
6
12
5
her son drives her there in the summer.
9 When the weather gets cold,
11
10 this outdoor pool is closed.
11 She does have access to a local gym w/ pool.
12 However, she chooses not to go there
#
facilitating factor
#
impeding factor
because the gym’s other patrons tend to be
younger and she is self-conscious about what
they will think when they see all her surgical
scars.
18
#2. Work/task/process analysis
What do patients and families do? How? When? Why? Where? With whom?
What are key variances?
19
#2. Work/task/process analysis
Wake up
Go out for
day
Weigh self
Check for
swelling
home
Go to
sleep
Prepare
meal
Other vitals
Write
down
Take meds
Drink
coffee
Bathroom
Extra
diuretic
Take meds
Caregiver
Sleep
Wake
#2. Work/task/process analysis
21
#2. Work/task/process analysis
22
#2. Work/task/process analysis
Aarhus & Ballegaard, 2010
23
#3. Workload and situation awareness
What are the demands on patients/families, relative to available resources?
How aware are patients/families of what happened, what is happening, what
might happen? Can we optimize workload and situation awareness?
(May et al, 2009)
24
#3. Workload and situation awareness
Demands
• Work volume
• Work complexity
• Time required
• Number of tasks
• Inefficiency
(Situational)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Constraints
Distractions
Task switch cost
Processing costs
Task complexity, timing
Task conflict
Resources
• Assistance from others
• Time, energy
• Skill/abilities
• Technology
• Simplifying routines
• Familiarity/expertise
Holden et al, 2010
25
#3. Workload and situation awareness
Demands
• Work volume
• Work complexity
• Time required
• Number of tasks
• Inefficiency
(Situational)
•
•
•
•
•
•
“I started coming out here, taking
my blood pressure, taking my
weight, and sugar count, so forth
'til I feel like
a secretary… it
Resources
aggravates the fool out of me. I
• Assistance from others
get up in the mornings, it takes me
30 minutes•toTime,
put myenergy
clothes on,
get all my scales,
and get into the
• Skill/abilities
kitchen at my little table back
• Technology
there I've got, and take all this
• Simplifying
routines
stuff, pressures,
blood pressures,
uh, sugar count,
and I, I ought to
• Familiarity/expertise
get me a degree, you know, I, I'm
almost a doctor.”
Constraints
Distractions
Task switch cost
Processing costs
Task complexity, timing
Task conflict
26
#3. Workload and situation awareness
Situation awareness
“The perception of
elements in the
environment within a
volume of time and
space, the
comprehension of their
meaning, and the
projection of their status
in the near future“
(Endsley, 1995)
or
“What? So what? Now what?” (Tenney & Pew, 2006)
27
#3. Workload and situation awareness
What do we
do when I
cannot
breathe
anymore??
“I was in the ER (emergency room) one
time with a horrible case of strep
throat, and my throat was literally
closing up. And the nurse just came in
and she gave me an IV, and some pills,
and said, “I'll come back and check
on you,” right?
And I got to the point where if I leaned
back, I couldn't breathe at all. I had to
sit up to breathe.
So, I literally, I mean, I was in there
probably an hour just sitting by myself,
and I had a pad, and I wrote out,
“What do we do when I cannot
breathe anymore?”
#4. Teamwork-facilitating methods
Are patients and families truly part of a “team” with professionals?
How can patient/family-professional collaboration be measured, improved?
29
#4. Teamwork-facilitating methods
Characteristics of successful teams (Salas et al., 2000, 2008)
Characteristic
Are we there yet? Can HFE help?
Interdependence


Common goals


Shared situation awareness


Common ground (e.g., shared lingo, ideas)


Strong coordinating mechanisms


Leadership-subordination


Reliable communication systems


Specific, timely, reliable feedback


Adaptable, flexible


Strong interpersonal relations


Deference to expertise during decisions


…
30
#4. Teamwork-facilitating methods
Nurse: Using your Spiriva
inhaler?
MD: So mom says she
needs...
Patient: Yeah....that's blue,
ain’t it?
Patient: Maximillistine, I
can’t say it, you know.
Nurse: I don't know.
MD: Well, it’s Maxaltine,
but you’re not on that.
Patient: Yeah, only though,
not like the blue one all the
time. What you call it?
Nurse: I don't know. I
don't, I don't know what
those look like.
Patient: I can’t say it....I
have to take it twice a
day, it’s supposed to be
three times, I take it twice
a day. It’s orange and
kind of brown.
31
#5. Incident capture and analysis
What kind of nonroutine events do patients and families report?
Intervention
(Rescue or Recovery)
RISK
Deviation from
Optimal Care
O PTI MAL CAR E PATH
Non-Routine
Event (NRE)
Adverse
Outcome
“Optimal”
Outcome
Performance Shaping
Factors
32
Good news/bad news
about human factors contributions to patient engagement
• “The extent to which human factors research is
incorporated into home-based devices, technologies,
and practices will have a big influence on whether
greater reliance on home health care proves to have
beneficial or detrimental effects on people’s lives.”
(National Research Council, 2011)
• “There are many resources available from other
disciplines to help healthcare move to where it
needs to be in terms of patient engagement …
There are some great minds working in this space,
including behavioral economists, user experience
designers, community leaders, interaction
designers, software developers and game
designers, risk managers, data scientists, and
actuaries.”
(Kish, 2012)
33
Thank you!
Questions?
Rich Holden, PhD, [email protected]
Our R&D Team
Chris Schubert,
PhD
Courtney
Thomas,
MA
Robin Mickelson,
MS, RN
Amanda
McDougald
Scott, MS
Tony Threatt,
PhD
Russ Beebe,
MA
Human work performance
(1) Occurs in context & (2) Is adaptive
Karl Ulrich (K.U.) Smith
Michael J. Smith
“We begin our adventure into the science
of psychology not in the laboratory but at
home, at school, at work, in all of the
familiar life situations.
…
Human behavior involves a continuing
series of adjustments … We can learn
much by examining these adjustments as
they occur in their natural settings.”
Ben-Tzion Karsh
me
K.U. Smith & W.M. Smith, 1958