Sports Performance 15
Basic Training Principles
Basic Training Principles
What is Physical Fitness?
 Being physically fit means
to be able to perform
everyday activities with
ease.
Basic Training Principles
5 Components of Physical Fitness:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Muscular Strength
Muscular Endurance
Cardiovascular Endurance
Flexibility
Body Composition
Basic Training Principles
1. Muscular
Strength
 The capacity to exert force
against a resistance.
 Resistance training
programs are the most
efficient way to gain rapid
strength.
 Increased in strength is
related to increase in
muscular endurance.
Basic Training Principles
2.
Muscular Endurance
 The body’s ability to resist
fatigue or sustain prolonged
activity.
 Endurance can be improved
by using a moderate load and
progressively increasing the
no. of reps.
Basic Training Principles
3.
Cardiovascular Endurance
 The ability of the circulatory and
respiratory system to carry oxygen to
the working muscles and waste products
away.
 An efficient CV (cardiovascualar) system
can deliver a high amount of oxygen per
kilogram of body weight.
 The recommendation for good CV fitness
is to do 3-5 sessions of 20-30 minute
workouts a week at a HR intensity that
corresponds to your age.
Basic Training Principles
4.
Flexibility
 Is the range of motion
(ROM) possible in a
given joint or series of
joints.
 Improvement can occur
at any age.
 Maintaining a good ROM
provides increased
resistance to muscle and
soreness.
Basic Training Principles
5.
Body Composition
 Body weight is maintained by
balancing nutritional
requirements necessary for
energy expenditure with a
well-balanced diet.
 Maximize lean body mass and
minimize the % of body
weight.
 Weight of a person not
important – lean muscle mass
weighs more than fat.
Basic Training Principles
Benefits of Weight Training
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Increased contractile strength in the muscle.
Increased tensile strength in tendons, ligaments and bones.
Increased bone density.
Positive changes to physical capacity, metabolic function,
athletic power, reduced injury risk, physical and psychological
well being.
Basic Training Principles
Benefits of Aerobic Training
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Increased ability to use fat as a fuel and increase metabolic weight.
Increased bone density.
Adaptation to increased intensity of exercise.
Increased ability to transport oxygen to tissues.
Quick recovery upon completion of exercise.
Increased energy for daily activities.
Decreased resting heart rate.
Improved circulation and possible decreased resting blood pressure.
Basic Training Principles
Health Benefits of
Exercise
Exercise has a preventative
effect on a wide range of
pathologies.
 Hypertension (high blood pressure)
 Obesity
 Heart Disease
 Asthma
 Lower Back Problems
 Bone and Joint Disorders
 Psychological Disorders
 Arteriosclerosis
Basic Training Principles
To be effective in their strength training,
athletes must follow certain principles:
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Stress- Rest Principle
Progressive Resistance Overload Principle
Principle of Specificity
The F.I.T.T Principle
The Principle of Symmetry
Contraction-Control Principle
Ceiling Principle
Maintenance Principle
Principle of Reversibility
Basic Training Principles
Cardiovascular Disease
 CV Disease is the number 1 killer in
North America for both men and
women.
 By implementing a healthy lifestyle
you can make the following
improvements reducing your risk
ofcoronary heart disease:
-Decreased Heart Rate
-Increase in muscle efficiency
-Decrease in total body fat
-Decrease in total blood cholesterol
-Decrease in blood pressure
Basic Training Principles
9 Basic Training Principles:
 These principles help an
athlete, coach and athletic
trainer maximize the benefits
of resistance training, and
help achieve the program
goals of an individual.
 Stops you from wasting your
time and perhaps even
injuring yourself in the gym!!
Basic Training Principles
1. Overload Principle
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Physical conditioning is
improved when the body is
placed under greater than
normal workload until it
adapts to a new level.
Manipulate aspects of
frequency, intensity, time
and type of activity
gradually until the body
adapts to a new load.
Basic Training Principles
2. Adaptation Principle
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Body adapts and responds
over time to exercise and the
demands placed on the body.
Can be acute/short term or
chronic/long term.
Demands must be placed on
the body on a regular and
repeated basis for chronic
adaptations to occur.
Basic Training Principles
3. Specificity Principle
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SAID – Specific, Adaptation,
Imposed, Demands
The type and degree of
adaptation to the body depends
on the type and amount of
exercises performed.
High reps builds endurance.
Heavy weight builds size and
strength.
Specificity applies to a
specific group of muscles.
Basic Training Principles
4. Stress – Rest Principle
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The body needs to recover
after a workout.
5-6 sessions of varied
cardiovascular intensity
exercise a week – must have
at least one day of full rest.
48-72 hours rest is optimal
between workouts on similar
muscle groups.
Basic Training Principles
5. Contraction- Control
Principle
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Perform weight training
movements in a slow and
controlled manner
because the speed of the
repetition can exceed the
ability of a muscle to
contract.
Cheating movements can
impose stress on the
connective tissue.
Basic Training Principles
6. Symmetry Principle
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Develop balanced
muscles in the body.
Always work opposing
muscle groups.
Muscular imbalance will
lead to injury.
Basic Training Principles
7. Ceiling Principle
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As their participants
approach their genetic
limit or biological
ceiling, there will be
smaller changes.
Ceiling effect can occur
because of excessive
fatigue, injury and/or
poor diet.
Basic Training Principles
8. Maintenance
Principle
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Once training goal is
reached, it can be
maintained by reducing
the frequency, but
keeping the intensity and
duration of workouts the
same (e.g from 3 to 2 x
a week).
Basic Training Principles
9. Reversibility Principle
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If a body is not stressed,
training adaptations will decline
1/3 the rate they were gained.
E.g. a training effect after 1
month will be lost in 3 months.
This of course varies from
individual to individual.
The declines can be both
aerobic and strength.
Basic Training Principles
:
F.I.T.T Principle
Four major variables that
come into play in designing a
training program.
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F – Frequency: number of
times a week
I - Intensity: level of
exertion
T- Time: length of workout
T - Type: type of workout
Basic Training Principles:
F.I.T.T Principle
Cardiovascular
Conditioning
 F =3-5 times a week
 I = 60-85% of Maximum
Heart Rate, to see
significant improvements
in CV fitness
 T = >20 minutes
 T = Continuous activity
Basic Training Principles:
F.I.T.T Principle
Muscular Strength
 F = 2-4 times a week (every
other day) for a basic full
body or 2 day split routine
 I = 75% of 1RM (repetition
maximum)
 T = Until muscle fatigue is
achieved. Training sessions
vary between 30-90 minutes,
include 8-10 exercises, and
include all major groups
 T = Isometric, concentric,
eccentric, etc
Basic Training Principles:
F.I.T.T Principle
Muscular Endurance
 F = 2-4 times a week
(every other day)
 I = low to moderate
resistance 12-20
repetitions – high volume
 T = Until muscular
fatigue is achieved
 T = Isometric,
concentric, eccentric, etc
Basic Training Principles:
F.I.T.T Principle
Flexibility
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F = 3-7x a week
I = Until mild tension is felt,
perform stretches only after
the body is properly warmed
up.
T = 15-60 sec for each
stretch, usually stretch
session lasts 10 minutes
(depending on the number
of stretches performed)
T= static, dynamic, PNF.
Basic Training Principles:
F.I.T.T Principle
Body Composition:
 Goal: to decrease body fat and
increase LBM (lean body mass)
 F = CV 4-6 x a week; WT = 2 x
a week
 I = 60-70% of MHR; 10-12
reps max effort, 3-5 sets
 T = 30-45 minutes; sets to
failure.
 T = Aerobic conditioning;
Muscular strength and
endurance
Basic Training Principles Overtraining
Overtraining:
 Not allowing enough rest
and recovery time after
workouts.
Some Emotional signs:
 Increase in depression and
nervousness
 Inability to relax
 A drop in academic or job
performance
 A desire to quit training
altogether.
Basic Training Principles Overtraining
Body warning signs:
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Extreme muscle soreness
A gradual increase in muscle
soreness between training sessions
Decrease in body weight when not
wanted
Sudden gradual increase in resting
HR
Loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping
Swelling of lymph nodes
Unexplained drop in athletic
performance
Prone to colds and flues
Increased risk of injury
Basic Training Principles
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Learning the rules of
training before starting any
kind of program is essential
to any athlete.
This ensures that little time
is wasted in achieving
optimum results
Also, being educated in this
area allows the athlete to
monitor internal and
external warning signs,
decreasing the risks of
potential hazards.
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Basic Training Principles