Sports Performance 15 Basic Training Principles Basic Training Principles What is Physical Fitness? Being physically fit means to be able to perform everyday activities with ease. Basic Training Principles 5 Components of Physical Fitness: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Cardiovascular Endurance Flexibility Body Composition Basic Training Principles 1. Muscular Strength The capacity to exert force against a resistance. Resistance training programs are the most efficient way to gain rapid strength. Increased in strength is related to increase in muscular endurance. Basic Training Principles 2. Muscular Endurance The body’s ability to resist fatigue or sustain prolonged activity. Endurance can be improved by using a moderate load and progressively increasing the no. of reps. Basic Training Principles 3. Cardiovascular Endurance The ability of the circulatory and respiratory system to carry oxygen to the working muscles and waste products away. An efficient CV (cardiovascualar) system can deliver a high amount of oxygen per kilogram of body weight. The recommendation for good CV fitness is to do 3-5 sessions of 20-30 minute workouts a week at a HR intensity that corresponds to your age. Basic Training Principles 4. Flexibility Is the range of motion (ROM) possible in a given joint or series of joints. Improvement can occur at any age. Maintaining a good ROM provides increased resistance to muscle and soreness. Basic Training Principles 5. Body Composition Body weight is maintained by balancing nutritional requirements necessary for energy expenditure with a well-balanced diet. Maximize lean body mass and minimize the % of body weight. Weight of a person not important – lean muscle mass weighs more than fat. Basic Training Principles Benefits of Weight Training Increased contractile strength in the muscle. Increased tensile strength in tendons, ligaments and bones. Increased bone density. Positive changes to physical capacity, metabolic function, athletic power, reduced injury risk, physical and psychological well being. Basic Training Principles Benefits of Aerobic Training Increased ability to use fat as a fuel and increase metabolic weight. Increased bone density. Adaptation to increased intensity of exercise. Increased ability to transport oxygen to tissues. Quick recovery upon completion of exercise. Increased energy for daily activities. Decreased resting heart rate. Improved circulation and possible decreased resting blood pressure. Basic Training Principles Health Benefits of Exercise Exercise has a preventative effect on a wide range of pathologies. Hypertension (high blood pressure) Obesity Heart Disease Asthma Lower Back Problems Bone and Joint Disorders Psychological Disorders Arteriosclerosis Basic Training Principles To be effective in their strength training, athletes must follow certain principles: Stress- Rest Principle Progressive Resistance Overload Principle Principle of Specificity The F.I.T.T Principle The Principle of Symmetry Contraction-Control Principle Ceiling Principle Maintenance Principle Principle of Reversibility Basic Training Principles Cardiovascular Disease CV Disease is the number 1 killer in North America for both men and women. By implementing a healthy lifestyle you can make the following improvements reducing your risk ofcoronary heart disease: -Decreased Heart Rate -Increase in muscle efficiency -Decrease in total body fat -Decrease in total blood cholesterol -Decrease in blood pressure Basic Training Principles 9 Basic Training Principles: These principles help an athlete, coach and athletic trainer maximize the benefits of resistance training, and help achieve the program goals of an individual. Stops you from wasting your time and perhaps even injuring yourself in the gym!! Basic Training Principles 1. Overload Principle Physical conditioning is improved when the body is placed under greater than normal workload until it adapts to a new level. Manipulate aspects of frequency, intensity, time and type of activity gradually until the body adapts to a new load. Basic Training Principles 2. Adaptation Principle Body adapts and responds over time to exercise and the demands placed on the body. Can be acute/short term or chronic/long term. Demands must be placed on the body on a regular and repeated basis for chronic adaptations to occur. Basic Training Principles 3. Specificity Principle SAID – Specific, Adaptation, Imposed, Demands The type and degree of adaptation to the body depends on the type and amount of exercises performed. High reps builds endurance. Heavy weight builds size and strength. Specificity applies to a specific group of muscles. Basic Training Principles 4. Stress – Rest Principle The body needs to recover after a workout. 5-6 sessions of varied cardiovascular intensity exercise a week – must have at least one day of full rest. 48-72 hours rest is optimal between workouts on similar muscle groups. Basic Training Principles 5. Contraction- Control Principle Perform weight training movements in a slow and controlled manner because the speed of the repetition can exceed the ability of a muscle to contract. Cheating movements can impose stress on the connective tissue. Basic Training Principles 6. Symmetry Principle Develop balanced muscles in the body. Always work opposing muscle groups. Muscular imbalance will lead to injury. Basic Training Principles 7. Ceiling Principle As their participants approach their genetic limit or biological ceiling, there will be smaller changes. Ceiling effect can occur because of excessive fatigue, injury and/or poor diet. Basic Training Principles 8. Maintenance Principle Once training goal is reached, it can be maintained by reducing the frequency, but keeping the intensity and duration of workouts the same (e.g from 3 to 2 x a week). Basic Training Principles 9. Reversibility Principle If a body is not stressed, training adaptations will decline 1/3 the rate they were gained. E.g. a training effect after 1 month will be lost in 3 months. This of course varies from individual to individual. The declines can be both aerobic and strength. Basic Training Principles : F.I.T.T Principle Four major variables that come into play in designing a training program. F – Frequency: number of times a week I - Intensity: level of exertion T- Time: length of workout T - Type: type of workout Basic Training Principles: F.I.T.T Principle Cardiovascular Conditioning F =3-5 times a week I = 60-85% of Maximum Heart Rate, to see significant improvements in CV fitness T = >20 minutes T = Continuous activity Basic Training Principles: F.I.T.T Principle Muscular Strength F = 2-4 times a week (every other day) for a basic full body or 2 day split routine I = 75% of 1RM (repetition maximum) T = Until muscle fatigue is achieved. Training sessions vary between 30-90 minutes, include 8-10 exercises, and include all major groups T = Isometric, concentric, eccentric, etc Basic Training Principles: F.I.T.T Principle Muscular Endurance F = 2-4 times a week (every other day) I = low to moderate resistance 12-20 repetitions – high volume T = Until muscular fatigue is achieved T = Isometric, concentric, eccentric, etc Basic Training Principles: F.I.T.T Principle Flexibility F = 3-7x a week I = Until mild tension is felt, perform stretches only after the body is properly warmed up. T = 15-60 sec for each stretch, usually stretch session lasts 10 minutes (depending on the number of stretches performed) T= static, dynamic, PNF. Basic Training Principles: F.I.T.T Principle Body Composition: Goal: to decrease body fat and increase LBM (lean body mass) F = CV 4-6 x a week; WT = 2 x a week I = 60-70% of MHR; 10-12 reps max effort, 3-5 sets T = 30-45 minutes; sets to failure. T = Aerobic conditioning; Muscular strength and endurance Basic Training Principles Overtraining Overtraining: Not allowing enough rest and recovery time after workouts. Some Emotional signs: Increase in depression and nervousness Inability to relax A drop in academic or job performance A desire to quit training altogether. Basic Training Principles Overtraining Body warning signs: Extreme muscle soreness A gradual increase in muscle soreness between training sessions Decrease in body weight when not wanted Sudden gradual increase in resting HR Loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping Swelling of lymph nodes Unexplained drop in athletic performance Prone to colds and flues Increased risk of injury Basic Training Principles Learning the rules of training before starting any kind of program is essential to any athlete. This ensures that little time is wasted in achieving optimum results Also, being educated in this area allows the athlete to monitor internal and external warning signs, decreasing the risks of potential hazards.